Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
marinhas; estuarina; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 1 - 150 m (Ref. 28173). Tropical; 56°N - 30°S, 92°W - 42°E
Atlantic Ocean: in tropical and subtropical waters, including the Mediterranean, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 41.8  range ? - 60 cm
Max length : 122 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 26340); common length : 80.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 5217); peso máx. publicado: 16.5 kg (Ref. 40637); idade máx. registrada: 10 anos (Ref. 28173)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 15 - 16; Raios dorsais (total): 11-13; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais : 11 - 15; Vértebras: 39. Anterior spines of first dorsal fin much higher than the those mid-way, giving the fin a strongly concave outline. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Body naked except for corselet and lateral line. Swim bladder absent. Incipient protuberances on 33rd and 34th vertebrae. Back with broken oblique stripes (Ref. 168). Caudal peduncle with 7-8 finlets. Dark stripes on the back and with 3-7 dark spots between pelvic and pectoral fins (Ref. 35388).
Found in neritic waters close inshore (Ref. 13628). This schooling species is an opportunistic predator which feeds on virtually everything within its range, i.e. crustaceans, fishes (mainly clupeoid), squids, heteropods and tunicates. Eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 6769). Specialized traps (madragues) are used in Tunisia and Morocco. Diving bird flocks may indicate large schools (Ref. 9710). Utilized fresh, dried-salted, smoked, canned and frozen (Ref. 9987). A popular game fish (Ref. 9710).
Eggs are shed in several batches when the water is warmest.
Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 126983)
Ameaça para os humanos
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Uso pelos humanos
Pescarias: espécies comerciais; peixe esportivo: sim
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 11.5 - 27.8, mean 23.3 °C (based on 1094 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00864 - 0.01157), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.13-0.22; tm=2; tmax=8; Fec=71,000).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 15.6 [6.9, 118.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.86 [0.70, 4.94] mg/100g ; Protein = 23.1 [21.1, 24.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.228 [0.133, 0.398] g/100g ; Selenium = 58.4 [30.9, 111.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24.3 [5.5, 105.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.487 [0.245, 1.888] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.