(Mackerels) > Scombridae
(Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Auxis: Greek, auxis = a variety of tunna (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
समुद्री; खारा; औशिनोड़िरोमस (Ref. 51243); गहराई सीमा 10 - ? m (Ref. 9340). Tropical; ? - 28°C (Ref. 168); 61°N - 51°S, 180°W - 180°E
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific (Western): including the Mediterranean Sea. The eastern Pacific population is recognized as subspecies Auxis rochei eudorax (Ref. 32349). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 35 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm FL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 168); अधिकतम सूचित उम्र: 5 वर्षो (Ref. 125574)
पृष्ठीय रीढ़ (सम्पूर्ण): 9 - 12; पृष्ठीय सौफट रेज़ (सम्पूर्ण): 10-13; गुदा कांटा 0; ऐनल सौफट रेज़: 12 - 14. Back bluish, turning to deep purple or almost black on head. Scaleless area with pattern of 15 or more fairly broad, nearly vertical dark bars. Belly white. Pectoral and pelvic fins purple, their inner sides black. Body robust, elongate and rounded. Teeth small and conical, in a single series. Pectoral fins short, not reaching vertical line from anterior margin of scaleless area above corselet. A large, single-pointed flap (interpelvic process) between pelvic fins. Body naked except for corselet, which is well developed in its posterior part 9 more than 6 scales wide under second dorsal-fin origin). A strong central keel on each side of caudal-fin base between 2 smaller keels (Ref 9684).
Adults are principally caught in coastal waters and around islands (Ref. 9340). Form schools. Feed on small fishes, particularly anchovies, crustaceans (especially crab and stomatopod larvae) and squids. Eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 6769). Because of their abundance, they are considered an important element of the food web, particularly as forage for other species of commercial interest. Also caught with encircling nets and troll lines (Ref. 9340). Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9340) and also dried or salted, smoked and canned (Ref. 9987).
Fecundity ranges between 31,000 and 103,000 eggs per spawning according to the size of the fish.
Collette, B.B. and C.R. Aadland, 1996. Revision of the frigate tunas (Scombridae, Auxis), with descriptions of two new subspecies from the eastern Pacific. Fish. Bull. 94(3):423-441. (Ref. 32349)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
मात्स्यिकी: उच्च वाणिज्य; आखेट मत्स्य: हां
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 13.6 - 29, mean 26 °C (based on 6786 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00821 - 0.01111), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.8 (1.6 - 3.5) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
लौटाव (Ref. 120179
): माध्यम, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी होने का समय 1.4 - 4.4 वर्ष। (K=0.32; tm=2; Fec=31,000-103,000).
Prior r = 1.00, 95% CL = 0.66 - 1.50, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 198 [57, 462] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.28 [0.85, 5.87] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.7 [19.6, 23.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.364 [0.173, 0.759] g/100g ; Selenium = 49.2 [18.5, 153.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 32.7 [6.9, 148.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.46 [0.47, 2.70] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.