Cetorhinus maximus, Basking shark : fisheries
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Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus 1765)

Basking shark
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Cetorhinus maximus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Cetorhinus maximus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks) > Cetorhinidae (Basking sharks)
Etymology: Cetorhinus: Greek, ketos = a marine monster, whale + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335);  maximus: After Selache Cuvier, 1816, a synonym for Cetorhinus Blainville, 1816.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 2000 m (Ref. 26346), usually 0 - ? m (Ref. 55197).   溫帶; 6°C - 24°C (Ref. 88171); 75°N - 58°S, 111°E - 42°E (Ref. 84930)

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Cosmopolitan, frequent in cold to warm temperate waters; rare in equatorial waters (Ref. 48844). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139). At risk of extinction by overfishing because of low to very low productivity (Ref. 36717). Appendix II (Mediterranean) of the Bern Convention (2002). Appendix I and II of the Bonn Convention (2009). International trade restricted (CITES Appendix II, since 28.5.2003).
四海為家的人。 西大西洋: 加拿大紐芬蘭到美國的佛羅里達; 巴西南部到阿根廷。 東大西洋: 冰島,挪威與 Barents海西部到地中海與塞內加爾; 也南非的開普省西部。 西太平洋: 日本到紐西蘭。 東太平洋: 阿拉斯加灣到智利; 可能地加拉巴哥群島。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139) 過度漁撈導致瀕臨滅絕由於生育力極低.(參考文獻 36717) 國際間的買賣限制。 ( 引用 附錄 2, 自從 28.5.2003 以後)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 500 - 1000 cm
Max length : 1,520 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 247); 980.0 cm TL (female); common length : 700 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 6077); 最大体重: 4.0 t (Ref. 4645)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0. Distinguished from all other sharks by the enormous gill slits practically encircling the head; dermal denticle gill rakers; pointed snout; huge, sub terminal mouth with minute hooked teeth; caudal peduncle with strong lateral keels, and lunate caudal fin. Body covered with placoid scales. Blackish to grey-brown, grey, or blue-grey, often with irregular white blotches under the head and abdomen (Ref. 43278). Also Ref. 309, 5983.
与所有的其他鲨鱼区分了藉由巨大的鳃缝实际地环绕头部; 表皮的细齿鳃耙; 尖的吻; 极大的, 次端位嘴部具有细小的钩状齿; 尾梗有强的侧龙骨 , 与新月状的尾鳍。 身体覆盖着盾鳞。 (形态学资料的其他来源: 参考文献 309,5983).

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

The second largest shark, reportedly reaching 1,220-1,520 cm TL (Ref. 247). Thought to live up to 50 years (Ref. 9030, 89083). Semi-oceanic or oceanic species, highly migratory (Ref. 43278). Found on continental and insular shelves, offshore and often close to land, just off the surf zone; enters enclosed bays (Ref. 247). Coastal-pelagic at 1 meter to unknown depths, probably epipelagic (Ref. 58302). Occurs singly, in pairs or groups of 3 or more, or in huge schools (group of up to 100 individuals has been reported) (Ref. 6871, 43278). Prefers water temperature between 8-16 °C (Ref. 88171). Makes extensive horizontal and vertical movements along the continental shelf and shelf edge to utilize productive feeding areas (Ref. 50200). During the summer months, it is found near the surface of boreal to warm-temperate areas (Ref. 43278) feeding on zooplankton by filtering (Ref. 88781). Found in deeper waters during winter (Ref. 6871, 50200, 58302). Undertakes long transoceanic migrations (e.g. from the British Isles to Newfoundland, Canada (Ref. 88824)) and moves between the northern and southern hemisphere in tropical mesopelagic water (Ref. 88825). These migrations have been found to cover distances of over 9,000 km. May form segregations by size or sex (Ref. 88171). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Regarded as ordinarily harmless and inoffensive but potentially dangerous if attacked (particularly when harpooned) (Ref. 247). In Bay of Fundy, Canada parasitic lampreys have been found attached to the back of basking sharks and sucking their blood (Ref. 83375). Utilized fresh, frozen and dried, or salted (Ref. 9987). Also valued for its liver for oil, fins for soup, hide for leather and carcass for fishmeal (Ref. 247). May be a potential source of anti-carcinoma drugs (Ref. 6034, 6035). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Threatened due to bycatch fisheries (Ref. 83294).

第二个大的鲨鱼, 据报告达到 1,220-1,520 公分TL.(参考文献 247) 栖息于大陆架与岛屿棚了, 外海而且时常接近土地, 正好外海海浪区; 进入封闭的海湾。 (参考文献 247) 慢慢地游泳在水表面,3 或 4 通常成群但是一群向上到 100 已经被报告.(参考文献 6871) 在冬天期间栖息于深水域的底部了。 (参考文献 6871) 滤食桡脚类的动物,藤壶,十足目幼生与鱼卵从水中。 (参考文献 247) 卵胎生的, 胚胎吃产生于母亲的卵黄囊与其他的卵.(参考文献 50449) 被认为了通常无害处而无攻击性但是可能危险如果攻击 (特别地当用鱼叉叉).(参考文献 247) 被冻结而且乾制的生鲜使用, 或盐腌的.(参考文献 9987) 对于它的肝脏用于制造鱼肝油 , 鳍用于汤也评价, 隐藏用做皮革与残骸用于鱼粉.(参考文献 247) 可能是一个抗癌药物的可能来源。 (参考文献 6034,6035) 被用于中药材了。 (参考文献 12166)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Courtship behaviour patterns associated with elasmobranch reproduction were documented from an aerial observation which include 'parallel swimming', 'pectoral biting', 'nudging', and 'male on top of female'. Other mating behaviours particular to this species from the same aerial observation include nose-to-tail following; flank approach; close approach involving rostral contact or proximity with the gill, pectoral fin, vent, and dorsum; and echelon swimming (Ref. 37026). Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding on other ova produced by the mother (oophagy) after the yolk sac is absorbed (Ref. 50449). Estimated gestation period 12-36 months (Ref. 247, 1765, 9030, 88829); TL at birth estimated between 150-200 cm; mating thought to take place during early summer; a female giving birth to young captured in August in Norwegian waters (Ref. 5983). Over a study period of 5 years, courtship-like behaviour was observed off southwest England between May and July, always in surface waters along thermal fronts; because actual mating was not observed, this may occur in deeper water (Ref. 88831). A one-year resting period between pregnancies is thought to occur, resulting in a 2-4 year interval between litters (Ref. 9030, 1765, 88829). Only one pregnant female has been observed giving birth to a litter of 6 pups (Ref. 88830).四海為家的人。 西大西洋: 加拿大紐芬蘭到美國的佛羅里達; 巴西南部到阿根廷。 東大西洋: 冰島,挪威與 Barents海西部到地中海與塞內加爾; 也南非的開普省西部。 西太平洋: 日本到紐西蘭。 東太平洋: 阿拉斯加灣到智利; 可能地加拉巴哥群島。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139) 過度漁撈導致瀕臨滅絕由於生育力極低.(參考文獻 36717) 國際間的買賣限制。 ( 引用 附錄 2, 自從 28.5.2003 以後)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  濒危 (EN) (A2bd); Date assessed: 07 November 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)


  引起创伤的 (Ref. 247)


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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.4 - 22.7, mean 11.4 °C (based on 10877 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 17.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (Fec=1-2; Musick et al. 2000 (Ref. 36717)).
Prior r = 0.07, 95% CL = 0.03 - 0.26, Based on 2 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.