Prionace glauca, Blue shark : fisheries, gamefish
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Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758)

Blue shark
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Prionace glauca   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) 真鯊目 (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks) 白眼鮫科 (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Prionace: Derived from Greek, prio, prion, saw (Ref. 45335);  glauca: Named comes from the Latin 'glauca' meaning blue (Ref. 6885)  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 1000 m (Ref. 89422), usually 1 - 220 m (Ref. 55193).   亞熱帶的; 7°C - 21°C (Ref. 244); 71°N - 55°S, 180°W - 180°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Circumglobal in temperate and tropical waters. Western Atlantic: Newfoundland, Canada to Argentina. Central Atlantic. Eastern Atlantic: Norway to South Africa, including the Mediterranean. Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Indonesia, Japan, Australia, New Caledonia, and New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: Gulf of Alaska to Chile. Probably the widest ranging chondrichthyian. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
環球分佈於溫帶與熱帶的水域。 西大西洋: 加拿大紐芬蘭到阿根廷。 中大西洋。 東大西洋: 挪威到南非, 包括地中海。 印度-西太平洋: 東非到印尼,日本,澳洲,新加勒多尼亞與紐西蘭。 東太平洋: 阿拉斯加灣到智利。 可能最寬的分佈軟骨魚。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 206.2, range 170 - 221 cm
Max length : 400 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 35388); common length : 335 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5217); 最大體重: 205.9 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年齡: 20 年 (Ref. 27347)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. A slim, graceful blue shark with a long, conical snout, large eyes, and curved triangular upper teeth with saw edges; pectorals long and narrow; no interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578). Dark blue dorsally, bright blue on the sides, white ventrally (Ref. 5578). Tips of pectoral fins and anal fin dusky (Ref. 9997). The first case of diprosopus tetrophthalmus (cranofacial duplication) in a foetus of this species was reported from South Atlantic (Ref. 119190).
瘦又優美的藍色鯊魚有一個長的, 錐形吻又大的眼 , 與彎曲的三角形的上顎齒具有鋸齒邊; 胸鰭長而狹窄的; 沒有間背脊.(參考文獻 5578) 背面深藍色﹐側邊淡藍色﹐和腹側白色的.(參考文獻 5578) 胸鰭的頂端與臀鰭暗色的.(參考文獻 9997)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Oceanic, but may be found close inshore where the continental shelf is narrow (Ref. 6871, 58302). Usually found to at least 150 m (Ref. 26938). Reported from estuaries (Ref. 26340). Epipelagic, occasionally occurs in littoral areas (Ref. 58302). Feeds on fishes (herring, silver hake, white hake, red hake, cod, haddock, pollock, mackerel, butterfish, sea raven and flounders (Ref. 5951)), small sharks, squids, pelagic red crabs, cetacean carrion, occasional sea birds and garbage (Ref. 5578). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Sexual dimorphism occurs in skin thickness of maturing and adult females (Ref. 49562). May travel considerable distances (one specimen tagged in New Zealand was recaptured 1,200 km off the coast of Chile) (Ref. 26346). Potentially dangerous to humans (Ref. 6871, 13513). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, and frozen; meat utilized for consumption, hides for leather and fins for soup (Ref. 9987). Sexually mature at 250 cm long and 4-5 years old. The female gives birth up to 80 young measuring 40 cm long, gestation lasts almost a year (Ref. 35388). Produces from 4 to 135 young a litter (Ref. 26938).

大洋性的, 但是可能被發現大陸棚是狹窄的近岸.(參考文獻 6871,58302) 通常發現於到至少 150 公尺。 (參考文獻 26938) 記錄來自河口.。 (參考文獻 26340) 表層帶, 偶然地出現於海濱的區域中。 (參考文獻 58302) 捕食魚類 (鯡魚,銀色的鱈魚,白色的鱈魚,紅色的鱈魚,鱈魚,黑斑鱈, pollock ,鯖,溜滑的魚, 海洋大烏鴉與鰈魚 (參考文獻 5951)), 小的鯊魚,烏賊,大洋性的紅色螃蟹, 鯨類的腐肉又偶然的海鳥與垃圾.(參考文獻 5578) 胎生的.(參考文獻 50449) 性的同種二形出現於成熟的皮膚厚度中與雌性成魚.(參考文獻 49562) 五月旅行相當多的距離 (在紐西蘭被附以籤條的一件標本公里外海的智利海岸被拿回 1,200) 。 (參考文獻 26346) 可能對人類具有危險性.(參考文獻 6871,13513) 在市場上銷售新鮮的﹐乾燥或鹽醃, 與冷凍; 肉利用.消費,皮用做皮革與鰭用於湯。 (參考文獻 9987) 在 250 時性成熟公分長與 4-5 年之久。 母魚生產向上到 80個幼魚長度40 公分長, 妊娠幾乎持續一年.(參考文獻 35388) 生產品從 4 對 135個幼魚一胎.(參考文獻 26938)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Viviparous (Ref. 26281), placental (Ref. 50449); 4-63 young in a litter (Ref. 9997); 4-135 (usually 15-30) pups (Ref.58048), about 35-44 cm at birth. Gestation period ranges from 9 to 12 months (Ref. 244). Sexual dimorphism is evident in skin thickness of maturing and adult females (Ref. 49562). Females have thicker skin layer than males of the same size (Ref. 49562).環球分佈於溫帶與熱帶的水域。 西大西洋: 加拿大紐芬蘭到阿根廷。 中大西洋。 東大西洋: 挪威到南非, 包括地中海。 印度-西太平洋: 東非到印尼,日本,澳洲,新加勒多尼亞與紐西蘭。 東太平洋: 阿拉斯加灣到智利。 可能最寬的分佈軟骨魚。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 124695)

  近危 (NT) (A2bd); Date assessed: 06 November 2018

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  引起創傷的 (Ref. 4690)





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漁業: 低經濟; 游釣魚種: 是的
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 25.2, mean 14.8 °C (based on 1945 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00371 - 0.00538), b=3.10 (3.05 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.5 (6.9 - 10.0) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 21 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (rm=0.031; K=0.16; tm=6; tmax=20; Fec=4-135).
Prior r = 0.06, 95% CL = 0.04 - 0.10, Based on 6 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 15.6 [2.0, 61.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.32 [0.39, 3.95] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.6 [18.1, 22.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.623 [0.204, 1.723] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.2 [3.2, 40.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.55 [2.86, 34.00] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.317 [0.142, 1.080] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.