Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays)
(Stingrays) > Aetobatidae
(Pacific eagle rays)
Etymology: Aetobatus: Greek, aetos = eagle + Greek, batis, batidos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut; payau bentopelagis; amphidromus (Ref. 51243). Tropical
Indo-West: Persian Gulf to Borneo (patchy distribution).
Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 72.0 cm WD jantan/; (Ref. 4440); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 13.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
Morfologi | Morfometrik
This species is characterized by the following: dorsal without spots or rings; long rostral lobe (longest in adult males) and narrowly pointed; disc very broad and short, its length 55-70% WD; pectoral fins weakly falcate and joining head at eye level, separate from rostral lobe; posterior margins moderately concave, rear tips free and broadly rounded; spiracles large, dorsolateral and visible in dorsal view; mouth ventral, its width narrower than preoral length; nasal curtain large, deeply notched centrally and with a curtain-like fringe; teeth plate-like in a single row, the upper teeth transverse, lower chevron-shaped; disc entirely smooth, no denticles or thorns; tail elongate, whip-like, ca. 1.2-2.8 times WD when undamaged; dorsal-fin small and raked back, apex broadly rounded, free rear tip short with origin behind pelvic-fin insertions; caudal stings 1 or 2, longest greater than preoral length. Colour uniform brownish or greenish brown, mostly white ventrally, pectoral tips and posterior margins of disc mostly pale brownish (Ref. 114953).
Inhabits inshore waters (Ref. 9862). Often found in brackish waters (Ref. 4832). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Caught occasionally by bottom trawl and inshore demersal gillnet fisheries off Jakarta. Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its rarity and small size (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and B. Séret, 1990. Myliobatididae. p. 67-70. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4440)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanMass conversion
mitraGambarStamps, Coins Misc.Suara-suaraCiguateraKecepatanTipe renangArea insangOtolithsOtakPenglihatan / visi
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 29.2, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1688 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): Rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 4.5 - 14 tahun (Fec assumed to be <100).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .