Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Tropical
Eastern Atlantic Ocean: Nigeria (Old Calabar), Benin, Gulf of Guinea (Ref. 4438).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 320 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4438)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Diagnosis: A large stingray entirely covered by discrete prickles, but without tubercles (Ref. 81259).
A coastal species (Ref. 4438), that would be capable of migrating into freshwaters (Ref. 81259). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Capapé, C. and M. Desoutter, 1990. Dasyatidae. p. 59-63. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4438)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00280 - 0.01630), b=3.07 (2.87 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .