(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Pagellus: Diminutive of Latin, pager, derived from Greek, pagros = a fish, Dentex sp. (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
समुद्री बेनथोपिलाजिक; गहराई सीमा 150 - 700 m (Ref. 56504), usually 150 - 300 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 65°N - 20°N, 32°W - 17°E
Eastern Atlantic: Norway, Strait of Gibraltar to Cape Blanc in Mauritania, Madeira, Canary Islands, and western Mediterranean (rare beyond the Sicilian Strait). Reported from Iceland (Ref. 12462).
Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age
Maturity: Lm 31.4  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 4781); common length : 30.0 cm SL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 4781); अधिकतम प्रकाशित वज़न: 4.0 kg (Ref. 9987); अधिकतम सूचित उम्र: 15 वर्षो (Ref. 4645)
पृष्ठीय रीढ़ (सम्पूर्ण): 12 - 13; पृष्ठीय सौफट रेज़ (सम्पूर्ण): 11-13; गुदा कांटा 3; ऐनल सौफट रेज़: 11 - 12. Black spot above the pectoral fin base. Snout shorter than the eye diameter (Ref. 35388).
Inshore waters above various types of bottom (rocks, sand, mud) to 400 m (Mediterranean) and 700 m (Atlantic); young near the coast, adults on the continental slope specially over muddy bottoms. Omnivorous, but feed mainly on crustaceans, mollusks, worms and small fish. Protandric hermaphrodites, become females at 20-30 cm length. Adults move towards the coast up to the edge of the continental shelf to spawn from January to June (Ref. 3688). Important foodfish. Marketed fresh and frozen; consumed pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987).
Protandric hermaphrodite species (male during its first sexual maturity). Becomes female between 2 and 7 years of age. Spawns from January to June, depending on latitude. Egg size 1.19 mm, larval length at hatching 3.7 mm. Simultaneous hermaphroditism is also suggested for this species (Ref. 103751).
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
मात्स्यिकी: व्यापारिक; आखेट मत्स्य: हां
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 6.9 - 14.9, mean 11.2 °C (based on 160 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00994 - 0.01267), b=3.03 (3.00 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.5 (6.5 - 9.3) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
लौटाव (Ref. 120179
): माध्यम, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी होने का समय 1.4 - 4.4 वर्ष। (K=0.09-0.1; tmax=15; tm=4-5; Fec=70,000).
Prior r = 0.54, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.82, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 41.2 [17.9, 69.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.167 [0.103, 0.268] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.2, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.742 [0.486, 1.122] g/100g ; Selenium = 47.9 [24.1, 97.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.4 [2.1, 53.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.275 [0.208, 0.378] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.