Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 5 - 25 m (Ref. 9324). Tropical
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Islas Lobos de Afuera, Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 5590); common length : 35.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 57763)
Morfologia | Morfometria
Head and jaws very much compressed; body tapering posteriorly. Body depth at the middle about 1/13 of the entire length; the head about 1/7, measured to the branchial orifice. Jaws very narrow, sharp-pointed and equal. Gape deeply cleft. Teeth compressed at the sides, very sharp, slightly hooked and pointing backwards. Two tubular orifices above the eyes and two at the extremity of the snout. Distance of eyes from the end of the snout about twice the eye diameter. Branchial orifice and eyes of same size. Dorsal fin thick and fleshy. Color is fine dark purplish brown, with yellow circular spots; the spots mostly small. (Ref. 3157).
Often seen in shallow water. Remains under cover in rocky crevices during the day. Feeds mainly at night on crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 6852). Constantly opens and closes it mouth, an action required for respiration, not a threat (Ref. 5227).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Merlen, G., 1988. A field guide to the fishes of Galapagos. Wilmot Books, London, England 60 p. (Ref. 5590)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Nomi ComuniSinonimiMetabolismoPredatoriEcotossicologiaRiproduzioneMaturitàDeposizioneSpawning aggregationFecundityUovaEgg development
Age/SizeAccrescimentoLength-weightLength-lengthLength-frequenciesMorfometriaMorfologiaLarveDinamica popolazioni larvaliReclutamentoAbbondanzaBRUVS
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.3 - 29.1, mean 26.7 °C (based on 244 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00051 (0.00025 - 0.00105), b=3.25 (3.08 - 3.42), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .