Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Biển gần đáy; Mức độ sâu 55 - 1873 m (Ref. 55744), usually 150 - 1200 m (Ref. 35388). Deep-water; 64°N - 14°N, 19°W - 36°E
Northeast Atlantic: Faeroe Islands and Trondheim, Norway southward to Senegal. Mediterranean Sea.
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm 64.7, range 56 - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 40637); 90.0 cm TL (female); common length : 50.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. ); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 1.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
Depth range is reported at 55m-1200m in Ref. 9996. Found on the outer continental shelves and upper slopes. Feeds mainly on bottom invertebrates, including shrimps and cephalopods, but also on small pelagic bony fishes (lanternfishes) and other small elasmobranchs. Oviparous, with up to 13 eggs present in the oviducts at one time. Individuals from the Ionian Sea apparently reproduces from end of February to September and eggs are laid between 200 and 600 meters (Ref. 87978). Utilized fresh and dried-salted for human consumption, and for leather.
Oviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
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Các nguồn internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.4 - 14.4, mean 10.3 °C (based on 708 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00224 - 0.00339), b=3.01 (2.95 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): thấp, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 4.5 - 14 năm (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 15 [3, 56] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.269 [0.062, 0.771] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.8 [14.0, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.211 [0.082, 0.508] g/100g ; Selenium = 9.56 [3.35, 27.57] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.14 [2.35, 35.63] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.342 [0.161, 0.696] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.