(Carps) > Xenocyprididae
(East Asian minnows)
Etymology: Ctenopharyngodon: Greek, kteis, ktenos = comb + Greek, pharyngx = pharynx + greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335); idella: Cteno=comb; pharynx=throat; odon=tooth (in reference to its comblike pharyngeal teeth); and idella: presumably derived from the Greek idios, distinctive or peculiar (Ref. 79012). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; air tawar; payau bentopelagis; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 0 - 30 m (Ref. 6898). Subtropical; 0°C - 35°C (Ref. 52059); 50°N - 23°N, 100°E - 142°E (Ref. 48)
Asia: Eastern China and Russia (Ref. 48) in eastern Siberia, Amur River system (Ref. 1441). Widely transported around the world (Ref. 7248). Persists only in Europe by stocking (Ref. 59043). Introductions often brought with it the parasitic tapeworm Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis (synonym of B. acheilognathi) (Ref. 12217). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?, range 58 - 79.2 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 30578); common length : 10.7 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 35840); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 45.0 kg (Ref. 7248); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 21 Tahun (Ref. 48)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 3; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 7-8; Duri dubur 3; Sirip dubur lunak: 7 - 11. No barbels. Snout very short, its length less than or equal to eye diameter. Postorbital length more than half head length (Ref. 4967). 18 soft rays for caudal fin (Ref. 40476). Diagnosed from rather similar species Mylopharyngodon piceus by having the following characters: body olive to brassy green above, silvery white to yellow below; body cylindrical; pharyngeal teeth laterally compressed, serrated, with a groove along grinding surface, usually in two rows, 2,5-4,2 (Ref. 59043).
Adults occur in lakes, ponds, pools and backwaters of large rivers (Ref. 5723), preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation. Tolerant of a wide range of temperatures from 0° to 38°C, and salinities to as much as 10 ppt and oxygen levels down to 0.5 ppm. Feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged grasses; takes also detritus, insects and other invertebrates. One of the world's most important aquaculture species and also used for weed control in rivers, fish ponds and reservoirs (Ref. 9987). Spawn on riverbeds with very strong current (Ref. 30578). Utilized also fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987). Considered as a pest in most countries because of the damages made to submerged vegetation (Ref. 43281).
Spawns in gravel bottomed areas of rivers (Ref. 48). Eggs are pelagic and hatch while drifting downstream in 2-3 days (Ref. 59043).
Shireman, J.V. and C.R. Smith, 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884). FAO Fish. Synop. No.135, 86 p. (Ref. 48)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil; Budidaya air: komersial; Ikan buruan: ya
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00813 - 0.01122), b=3.07 (3.02 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): Rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 4.5 - 14 tahun (K=0.13-0.19; tm=2-10; tmax=21; Fec=50,000).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .