Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino; salmastro associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 70 m, usually 0 - 10 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 40°N - 40°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Hawaiian, Marquesan, and Mangaréva islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern New South Wales, Australia. Also recorded from Southeast Atlantic: South Africa (Ref. 3972).
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 66.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 1602)
Spine dorsali (totale): 0; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 0; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 0; Vertebre: 162 - 171. White to yellow with 25-30 black saddles (Ref. 3972).
Occurs in sandy areas and seagrass beds of both lagoon and seaward reefs. Uses its stiff pointed tail to rapidly burrow backwards into the sand when frightened (Ref. 37816). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on sand-dwelling fishes and crabs and prawns. Sometimes fully exposed when searching for prey (Ref. 30874). Rises to the surface to spawn (Ref. 37816).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Rises to the surface to spawn. Once there, one or more males may seize a female by the back of the neck and remain attached for hours before spawning occurs.
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 29.2, mean 28.1 °C (based on 2893 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00045 - 0.00234), b=2.97 (2.77 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 64.4 [32.3, 115.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.749 [0.459, 1.288] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.0, 20.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.228 [0.093, 0.631] g/100g ; Selenium = 48.3 [22.7, 104.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 38.1 [8.9, 154.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.53 [1.02, 2.25] mg/100g (wet weight);