Heterodontus francisci, Horn shark : fisheries, aquarium

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Heterodontus francisci (Girard, 1855)

Horn shark
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Heterodontus francisci   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Heterodontus francisci (Horn shark)
Heterodontus francisci
Picture by Gotshall, D.W.

Classification / Names Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes(Genere, Specie) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchi (squali e razze) (sharks and rays) > Heterodontiformes (Bullhead and horn sharks) > Heterodontidae (Bullhead, horn, or Port Jackson sharks)
Etymology: Heterodontus: Greek, heteros = other + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Girard.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marino demersale; distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 152 m (Ref. 106604), usually 2 - 11 m (Ref. 9253).   Subtropical; 37°N - 15°S, 124°W - 75°W

Distribuzione Stati | Aree FAO | Ecosystems | Presenze | Point map | Introduzioni | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: central California, USA to the Gulf of California, and probably Ecuador and Peru.

Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 59 - ? cm
Max length : 122 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 247); common length : 97.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 247); Età massima riportata: 12 anni (Ref. 72467)

Biologia     Glossario (es. epibenthic)

Sluggish, nocturnal, and mostly solitary species. Inhabit rocky bottoms, kelp beds, sandy draws between rocks, on sand flats, deep crevices and small caves and also large underwater caverns. Adults tend to return to the same resting place every day (Ref. 43278). Feed on benthic invertebrates, especially sea urchins, crabs and probably abalone, also fishes. Oviparous (Ref. 50449). May bite back when harassed. Has broad muscular paired fins used as limbs for clambering on the bottom. Catch reduced to fish meal; fin spines used in production of jewels.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve

Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Courtship starts when the male chases the female, then when both are ready, they drop to the bottom (Ref. 43278). During courtship and prior to copulation, the male bites and wraps its body to the female pectoral fin, body, tail, and gills (Ref. 51127, 49562). The male then inserts a single clasper in the female's cloaca; copulation lasts 30 to 40 min. After one or two weeks later, the eggs are laid in about 11 to 14 intervals for 4 months which were deposited under rocks or in crevices, as was observed in nature. In captivity, the female drops the eggs on the bottom where the contents of the egg cases maybe eaten by these sharks; the eggs are hatched in 7 to 9 months. The young begin to feed one month after hatching (Ref. 43278).

Main reference Upload your references | Bibliografia | Coordinatore | Collaboratori

Compagno, L.J.V., 2001. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Vol. 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. 1(2):269 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 43278)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Data deficient (DD) ; Date assessed: 06 March 2014

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 247)





Human uses

Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale; Acquario: Acquari pubblici
FAO - pesca: species profile; Publication: search | FishSource |

Informazioni ulteriori

Stati
Aree FAO
Ecosystems
Presenze
Introduzioni
Stocks
Ecologia
Dieta
Prede
Consumo di cibo
Razione
Nomi Comuni
Sinonimi
Metabolismo
Predatori
Ecotossicologia
Riproduzione
Maturità
Deposizione
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Uova
Egg development
Age/Size
Accrescimento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larve
Dinamica popolazioni larvali
Reclutamento
Abbondanza
BRUVS
Bibliografia
Acquacoltura
Profilo di acquacoltura
Varietà
Genetica
Frequenze alleliche
Ereditarietà
Malattie
Elaborazione
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Collaboratori
Immagini
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suoni
Ciguatera
Velocità
Modalità di nuoto
Area branchiale
Otoliths
Cervelli
Vista

Strumenti

Special reports

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Fonti Internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Genere, Specie | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - pesca: species profile; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Acquari pubblici | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, ricerca | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 15.9 - 23.7, mean 21.4 °C (based on 159 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5059   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00233 - 0.00817), b=3.15 (2.98 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179):  Basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 4.5 - 14 anni (Fec=20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 30.8 [4.9, 108.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.793 [0.198, 2.002] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.6, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.227 [0.109, 0.475] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.8 [8.9, 85.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.6 [2.6, 21.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.626 [0.306, 1.593] mg/100g (wet weight);