Heterodontus francisci, Horn shark : fisheries, aquarium

You can sponsor this page

Heterodontus francisci (Girard, 1855)

Horn shark
Ajouter votre observation dans Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Heterodontus francisci   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Envoyez vos Photos et vidéos
Pictures | Videos | Images Google
Image of Heterodontus francisci (Horn shark)
Heterodontus francisci
Picture by Gotshall, D.W.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes(Genre, Espèce) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Élasmobranches (requins et raies) (sharks and rays) > Heterodontiformes (Bullhead and horn sharks) > Heterodontidae (Bullhead, horn, or Port Jackson sharks)
Etymology: Heterodontus: heteros (Gr.), different; odontos (Gr.), tooth, referring to pointy teeth (for clutching prey) at front of jaws, different than rounded molar-like teeth (for grinding hard-shelled invertebrates) at the back. (See ETYFish);  francisci: Of Francisco, probably referring to San Francisco (city and/or bay), California, USA (although its range does not extend that far north of its type locality, Monterey Bay). (See ETYFish).
More on author: Girard.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; marin démersal; profondeur 0 - 152 m (Ref. 106604), usually 2 - 11 m (Ref. 9253). Subtropical; 37°N - 15°S, 124°W - 75°W

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: central California, USA to the Gulf of California, and probably Ecuador and Peru.

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm ?, range 59 - ? cm
Max length : 122 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 247); common length : 97.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 247); âge max. reporté: 12 années (Ref. 72467)

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Sluggish, nocturnal, and mostly solitary species. Inhabit rocky bottoms, kelp beds, sandy draws between rocks, on sand flats, deep crevices and small caves and also large underwater caverns. Adults tend to return to the same resting place every day (Ref. 43278). Feed on benthic invertebrates, especially sea urchins, crabs and probably abalone, also fishes. Oviparous (Ref. 50449). May bite back when harassed. Has broad muscular paired fins used as limbs for clambering on the bottom. Catch reduced to fish meal; fin spines used in production of jewels.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Courtship starts when the male chases the female, then when both are ready, they drop to the bottom (Ref. 43278). During courtship and prior to copulation, the male bites and wraps its body to the female pectoral fin, body, tail, and gills (Ref. 51127, 49562). The male then inserts a single clasper in the female's cloaca; copulation lasts 30 to 40 min. After one or two weeks later, the eggs are laid in about 11 to 14 intervals for 4 months which were deposited under rocks or in crevices, as was observed in nature. In captivity, the female drops the eggs on the bottom where the contents of the egg cases maybe eaten by these sharks; the eggs are hatched in 7 to 9 months. The young begin to feed one month after hatching (Ref. 43278).

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur | Collaborateurs

Compagno, L.J.V., 2001. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Vol. 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. 1(2):269 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 43278)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 125652)

  Données manquantes (DD) ; Date assessed: 06 March 2014


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 247)

Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: intérêt commercial mineur; Aquarium: Aquariums publics
FAO - pêcheries: Résumé espèce; Publication: search | FishSource |

Plus d'informations

Noms communs
Rassemblement de ponte
Développement de l'œuf
Fréquences de longueurs
Dynamique des populations larvaires
Profil d'aquaculture
Fréquences alléliques
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Type de nage
Surface branchiale


Articles particuliers

Télécharger en XML

Sources Internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Genre, Espèce | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - pêcheries: Résumé espèce; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: génôme, nucléotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Aquariums publics | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Arbre de Vie | Wikipedia: aller à, chercher | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 15.9 - 23.7, mean 21.4 °C (based on 159 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5059   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00234 - 0.00814), b=3.15 (2.98 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Résilience (Ref. 120179):  Faible, temps minimum de doublement de population : 4,5 à 14 années (Fec=20).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):   (0 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 30.8 [4.9, 108.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.793 [0.198, 2.002] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.6, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.227 [0.109, 0.475] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.8 [8.9, 85.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.6 [2.6, 21.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.626 [0.306, 1.593] mg/100g (wet weight);