(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Balistes: Latin, balista, -ae = crossbowman. In Greek, ballo = to throw (Ref. 45335); capriscus: Specific name 'capriscus' meaning a small goat; probably referring to its 'face' which looks like a small goat (to be confirmed).. More on author: Gmelin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marin récifal; profondeur 0 - 100 m (Ref. 7348), usually 0 - 55 m (Ref. 55172). Subtropical; 58°N - 37°S, 98°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean to Moçamedes, Angola. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to Argentina (Ref. 7251).
Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge
Maturity: Lm 16.3, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 7348); common length : 44.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 47377); poids max. publié: 6.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
Épines dorsales (Total): 3; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 26-29; Épines anales 0; Rayons mous anaux: 23 - 26. Tall, with a small mouth and plate like scales (Ref. 35388). Three faint irregular broad dark bars on body; a narrow pale transverse band on chin; small light blue spots on upper half of body and median fins, and irregular short lines ventrally (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits bays, harbors, lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). May drift with young at surface among Sargassum (Ref. 9710). Usually solitary or in small groups (Ref. 9710). Feeds on benthic invertebrates like mollusks and crustaceans (Ref. 4727). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Consumed mostly fresh, smoked, and dried salted. The flesh is of excellent quality. Because it is resistant to capture, it proliferates and competes for food with other species (Ref. 5377).
Adults guard the embryos nested in sand which hatched in about two days (Ref. 9778).
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., B.B. Collette and B.E. Luckhurst, 1999. Fishes of Bermuda: history, zoogeography, annotated checklist, and identification keys. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 4. 424 p. (Ref. 35505)
Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Menace pour l'homme
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Utilisations par l'homme
Pêcheries: commercial; pêche sportive: oui; Aquarium: Aquariums publics
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Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9 - 26.2, mean 17.8 °C (based on 1432 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02042 (0.01726 - 0.02415), b=2.90 (2.85 - 2.95), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.2 (2.4 - 5.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 14 growth studies.
Résilience (Ref. 120179
): Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.18-0.43; tm=1).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.79, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .