Bathyraja arctowskii, Antarctic dark-mouth skate

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Bathyraja arctowskii (Dollo, 1904)

Antarctic dark-mouth skate
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drawing shows typical species in Arhynchobatidae.

Classification / Names Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes(Genere, Specie) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchi (squali e razze) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae (Softnose skates)
Etymology: Bathyraja: Greek, bathys = deep + Latin, raja, -ae = a ray (Raja sp) (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marino demersale; distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 1685 m (Ref. 123566), usually 126 - 810 m (Ref. 123566).   Deep-water

Distribuzione Stati | Aree FAO | Ecosystems | Presenze | Point map | Introduzioni | Faunafri

Southern Ocean: widespread, circumantarctic: Atlantic sector (off the South Shetland, Brabant, and Biscoe Islands to the South-East Weddell Sea); Pacific (Ross Sea); Indian (from Prydz Bay).

Size / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 123566); 53.5 cm TL (female)

Short description Morfologia | Morfometria

This species is characterized by the following: usually completely medium to dark grayish pigmented mouth cavity, often dark underside of the nasal curtain from very small juvenile stages onwards; differs from most congeners in Antarctic and Subantarctic waters in the absence of thorns on the dorsal disc. It is further distinguished by the following characters: disc evenly inverse heart-shaped (the disc margins distinctly undulated in adult males, but not or slightly undulated in others), with broadly rounded outer corners and with body length to mid-cloaca shorter than or equal to tail length from mid-cloaca; preorbital snout length 8.1-16.2% TL (depending on ontogenetic stage) and distance between first gill slits 14.2-15.9% TL; orbits are moderately large, horizontal diameter 1.3-1.8 times interorbital width; upper side of the disc and tail entirely rough, prickly with dermal denticles while the underside is smooth; except for alar thorns of mature males, no thorns on disc but only a median row of 19-30 small thorns along tail to first dorsal fin, the thorns become smaller and more widely spaced posteriorly in subadults and adults and are generally wider spaced in large juveniles to adults as compared with small juveniles; bases of low, more or less equal-sized dorsal fins confluent or with short interspace; postdorsal tail section very short, 1.7-5.2% TL, with low epichordal caudal lobe which is confluent with second dorsal fin; opened clasper tip shows all components typical for Bathyraja species, of which most apparent a long and deep pseudosiphon (ps) along outer edge of dorsal lobe, as well as a massive projection (pj) over entire length of the inner ventral lobe; clasper terminal skeleton with distal processes of dorsal marginal cartilage (forming external pseudorhipidion) and ventral marginal cartilage (forming external projection), 3 dorsal terminal cartilages (with dt1 very large and encapsulating terminal skeleton), ventral terminal, and one accessory terminal cartilage; apparent sexual dimorphism in scapulocoracoid, with post-mesocondyle length longer in females than in males. Colouration: dorsal ground color plain dark to medium grayish-brown, often with mostly indistinct scattered pale and dusky spots on disc, the posterior pelvic lobes and on sides of tail, occasionally with transverse white pseudoocellus stripe on inner posterior pectorals; ventral or underside mostly plain white or pale, often with gray marked cloaca and gray spots on belly to gill region, occasionally gray spotted posterior pectoral margins, origin and sides of tail, or tail partly dark; mouth cavity and underside of nasal curtain at least partly, usually completely pigmented medium to dark grayish from very small juvenile stages onwards (Ref. 123566).

Biologia     Glossario (es. epibenthic)

Individuals collected deeper than 810 m indicate that the species possibly occurs in greater depths in the Pacific sector, but may also be the result of differing fishery efforts in the respective depths. Most specimens caught deeper than 810 m were adults but were also recorded from shallower depths elsewhere and juveniles in turn were also recorded deeper than 810 m and even below 1000 m (Ref. 123566).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve

Main reference Upload your references | Bibliografia | Coordinatore : McEachran, John | Collaboratori

Stehmann, M.F., S. Weigmann and G.J. Naylor, 2021. First complete description of the dark-mouth skate Raja arctowskii Dollo, 1904 from Antarctic waters, assigned to the genus Bathyraja (Elasmobranchii, Rajiformes, Arhynchobatidae). Mar. Biodiv. 51(1):1-27. (Ref. 123566)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)


CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

Informazioni ulteriori

Stati
Aree FAO
Ecosystems
Presenze
Introduzioni
Stocks
Ecologia
Dieta
Prede
Consumo di cibo
Razione
Nomi Comuni
Sinonimi
Metabolismo
Predatori
Ecotossicologia
Riproduzione
Maturità
Deposizione
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Uova
Egg development
Age/Size
Accrescimento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larve
Dinamica popolazioni larvali
Reclutamento
Abbondanza
BRUVS
Bibliografia
Acquacoltura
Profilo di acquacoltura
Varietà
Genetica
Frequenze alleliche
Ereditarietà
Malattie
Elaborazione
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Collaboratori
Immagini
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suoni
Ciguatera
Velocità
Modalità di nuoto
Area branchiale
Otoliths
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Strumenti

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Fonti Internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Genere, Specie | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, ricerca | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = No PD50 data   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilienza (Ref. 120179):  Basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 4.5 - 14 anni (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .