इलाज़मौबरांकी (शारक और रेज़) (sharks and rays)
(Sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Dalatiidae
Etymology: Dalatias: Greek, dalos, ou = torch, burning piece of wood (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bonnaterre.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; समुद्री बाथीड़िमरसल; गहराई सीमा 37 - 1800 m (Ref. 247), usually 300 - 600 m (Ref. 247). Deep-water; 72°N - 56°S, 98°W - 153°W
Western Atlantic: Georges Bank and northern Gulf of Mexico. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland (Ref. 12462), Scotland, and Irish Atlantic slope to Morocco, western Mediterranean, Madeira to Cameroon. Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique and South Africa. Western Pacific: Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. Central Pacific: Hawaii.
Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 117 - 159 cm
Max length : 182 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 10717)
पृष्ठीय रीढ़ (सम्पूर्ण): 0; पृष्ठीय सौफट रेज़ (सम्पूर्ण): 0; गुदा कांटा 0; ऐनल सौफट रेज़: 0. Moderately sized, short- and blunt-snouted shark with two almost equal-sized dorsal fins; papillose thick lips; small slender-cusped upper teeth and very large lower teeth with erect triangular serrated cusps and distal blades; first dorsal fin on back with its origin behind the pectoral rear tips and its base closer to the pectoral base than the pelvic fins; and caudal fin with the ventral lobe not expanded (Ref. 247). Dark grey-brown to black; trailing edges of fins translucent (Ref. 26346).
Found on outer continental and insular shelves and slopes (Ref. 247). Mainly found on or near the bottom but readily occurs well off the substrate (Ref. 247, 58302). Often pelagic (Ref. 58302). Found singly or in small schools (Ref. 6871). Feeds mainly on deepwater bony fish, but also skates, other sharks (etmopterids in Ref. 123656), cephalopods and crustaceans (Ref. 5578). This bioluminiscent shark (currently the largest luminous vertebrate) emit light ventrally to counterilluminate which might be used to to illuminate the ocean floor while searching/hunting for prey; or to stealthily approach prey, using counterillumination camouflage, before striking fast when it is close enough (Ref. 123656). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205), with 10-20 young born at 30-42 cm (Ref. 26346). Used for its squalene liver oil, leather and meat, as well as for fishmeal (Ref. 6871).
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 247). 10-20 young born at 30-42 cm (Ref. 26346); 10-16 young born at 30 cm TL (Ref.58048). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
मात्स्यिकी: लघु वाणिज्य
संदर्भजलीयकृषिजलीयकृषि रूपरेखाखींचआनुवंशिकीऐल्लि आवृतियाँहैरेटिबिलटीबीमारीप्रक्रमणNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.5 - 14.3, mean 5.3 °C (based on 3093 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00139 - 0.00994), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
लौटाव (Ref. 120179
): निम्न, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी होने का समय 4.5 - 14 वर्ष। (Fec=10-20).
Prior r = 0.27, 95% CL = 0.15 - 0.48, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 9.25 [1.56, 29.42] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.288 [0.066, 0.756] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.4, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.286 [0.109, 0.950] g/100g ; Selenium = 23 [6, 65] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.44 [1.72, 23.24] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.243 [0.116, 0.504] mg/100g (wet weight);