Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Biển; Thuộc về nước lợ; Ở đại duơng, biển (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu - 400 m (Ref. 2683), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 62°N - 37°S, 18°W - 42°E (Ref. 54230)
Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to East London, South Africa (perhaps reaching Durban) (Ref. 10000). Also all of Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; also recorded from St. Helena (Ref. 189). Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247).
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.7, range 9 - 14 cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 189); common length : 13.5 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 189); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: g; Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 5 các năm (Ref. 92145)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 0; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 16-18; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 0; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 13 - 15; Động vật có xương sống: 46 - 47. Snout pointed; maxilla short, tip blunt, reaching almost to front border of pre-operculum, not projecting beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; tip of lower jaw reaching almost to below nostril. Gill rakers present on hind face of third epibranchial. Pseudobranch longer than eye, reaching onto inner face of operculum. A silver stripe along flank, disappearing with age.
Mainly a coastal marine species, forming large schools. Tolerates salinities of 5-41 ppt and in some areas, enters lagoons, estuaries and lakes, especially during spawning. Tends to move further north and into surface waters in summer, retreating and descending in winter. Feeds on planktonic organisms. Spawns from April to November with peaks usually in the warmest months. Eggs are ellipsoidal to oval, floating in the upper 50 m and hatching in 24-65 hours. Marketed fresh, dried, smoked, canned and frozen; made into fish meal (Ref. 9987).
Pelagic spawners. Gametogenesis is continuous, multiple spawning. Spawning peaks are usually in the warmer months which makes this species a spring-summer spawner. The limits of the spawning season is dependent on temperature and is therefore more restricted in northern areas. Sex ratio: 45% female (Ref. 5580).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Các nghề cá: tính thương mại cao; mồi: usually
Các công cụ
Các nguồn internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.1 - 18, mean 10.8 °C (based on 667 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00420 - 0.00520), b=3.09 (3.06 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 (1.9 - 3.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 52 growth studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (K=0.3-1.73; tmax=6; Fec =13,000-503,000).
Prior r = 0.59, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.91, Based on 21 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 229 [80, 594] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.8 [0.8, 4.2] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [16.3, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 2.05 [0.97, 4.43] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.2 [7.1, 49.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.3 [3.4, 71.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.59 [0.97, 2.59] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.