Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
marien; brak water; oceanodroom (Ref. 51243); diepte 0 - 400 m (Ref. 2683). Subtropical; 62°N - 37°S, 18°W - 42°E (Ref. 54230)
Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to East London, South Africa (perhaps reaching Durban) (Ref. 10000). Also all of Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; also recorded from St. Helena (Ref. 189). Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247).
Lengte bij maturiteit / Grootte / Gewicht / Leeftijd
Maturity: Lm 10.1, range 9 - 14 cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL mannelijk / geslacht onbekend; (Ref. 189); common length : 13.5 cm SL mannelijk / geslacht onbekend; (Ref. 189); max. gepubliceerd gewicht: 0.00 g; max. gerapporteerde leeftijd: 5 Jaren (Ref. 92145)
Dorsale stekels (totaal): 0; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 16-18; Anale stekels 0; Anale zachte stralen: 13 - 15; Wervels: 46 - 47. Snout pointed; maxilla short, tip blunt, reaching almost to front border of pre-operculum, not projecting beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; tip of lower jaw reaching almost to below nostril. Gill rakers present on hind face of third epibranchial. Pseudobranch longer than eye, reaching onto inner face of operculum. A silver stripe along flank, disappearing with age.
Mainly oceanic, marine species, forming large schools (see Ref. 126017:598). Tolerates salinities of 5-41 ppt and in some areas, enters lagoons, estuaries and lakes, especially during spawning. Tends to move further north and into surface waters in summer, retreating and descending in winter. Feeds on planktonic organisms. Spawns from April to November with peaks usually in the warmest months. Eggs are ellipsoidal to oval, floating in the upper 50 m and hatching in 24-65 hours. Marketed fresh, dried, smoked, canned and frozen; made into fish meal (Ref. 9987).
Pelagic spawners. Gametogenesis is continuous, multiple spawning. Spawning peaks are usually in the warmer months which makes this species a spring-summer spawner. The limits of the spawning season is dependent on temperature and is therefore more restricted in northern areas. Sex ratio: 45% female (Ref. 5580).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 125652)
Gevaar voor de mens
Gebruik door de mens
Visserij: van groot commercieel belang; aas: usually
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 7.1 - 18, mean 10.8 °C (based on 667 cells).
Fylogenetische diversiteitsindex (Ref. 82804
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00422 - 0.00519), b=3.10 (3.07 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trofisch niveau (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.2 (1.5 - 2.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 46 growth studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179
): Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (K=0.3-1.73; tmax=6; Fec =13,000-503,000).
Prior r = 0.59, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.91, Based on 21 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low vulnerability (9 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 229 [80, 594] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.8 [0.8, 4.2] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [16.3, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 2.05 [0.97, 4.43] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.2 [7.1, 49.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.3 [3.4, 71.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.59 [0.97, 2.59] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.