Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; بحري; مياه مخلوطة; محيطية (Ref. 51243); نطاق العمق - 400 m (Ref. 2683), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 62°N - 37°S, 18°W - 42°E (Ref. 54230)
Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to East London, South Africa (perhaps reaching Durban) (Ref. 10000). Also all of Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; also recorded from St. Helena (Ref. 189). Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247).
Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر
Maturity: Lm 9.7, range 9 - 14 cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 189); common length : 13.5 cm SL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 189); أعلا وزن تم نشرة: g; العمر: 5 سنين (Ref. 92145)
الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 0; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 16-18; شوكة شرجية 0; أشعه شرجية لينه: 13 - 15; فقرات: 46 - 47. Snout pointed; maxilla short, tip blunt, reaching almost to front border of pre-operculum, not projecting beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; tip of lower jaw reaching almost to below nostril. Gill rakers present on hind face of third epibranchial. Pseudobranch longer than eye, reaching onto inner face of operculum. A silver stripe along flank, disappearing with age.
Mainly a coastal marine species, forming large schools. Tolerates salinities of 5-41 ppt and in some areas, enters lagoons, estuaries and lakes, especially during spawning. Tends to move further north and into surface waters in summer, retreating and descending in winter. Feeds on planktonic organisms. Spawns from April to November with peaks usually in the warmest months. Eggs are ellipsoidal to oval, floating in the upper 50 m and hatching in 24-65 hours. Marketed fresh, dried, smoked, canned and frozen; made into fish meal (Ref. 9987).
Pelagic spawners. Gametogenesis is continuous, multiple spawning. Spawning peaks are usually in the warmer months which makes this species a spring-summer spawner. The limits of the spawning season is dependent on temperature and is therefore more restricted in northern areas. Sex ratio: 45% female (Ref. 5580).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
مصائد: ذو قيمة تاجرية عالية; طعم: usually
مصادر علي الأنترنت
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.1 - 18, mean 10.8 °C (based on 667 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00420 - 0.00520), b=3.09 (3.06 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
مستوى غذائي (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 (1.9 - 3.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 52 growth studies.
المرونه (Ref. 120179
): وسيط, الحد الزمني الأدني لتضاعف عدد أفراد المجتمع 1.4-4.4 سنة (K=0.3-1.73; tmax=6; Fec =13,000-503,000).
Prior r = 0.59, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.91, Based on 21 stock assessments.
عرضة للخطر (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 229 [80, 594] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.8 [0.8, 4.2] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [16.3, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 2.05 [0.97, 4.43] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.2 [7.1, 49.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.3 [3.4, 71.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.59 [0.97, 2.59] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.