分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の 底生の漂泳性. Subtropical
Europe and Asia: freshened areas of Black and Azov Seas, entering Don, Kuban, Dniepr, Dniestr and rarely Danube drainages.
サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 59043)
形態学 | 形態計測学
Diagnosed from its congeners in Black Sea basin by having the combination of the following characters: laterally compressed body; 39-41 + 2-3 scales along lateral line; dorsal and anal fins usually with 10½ branched rays; mouth inferior; iris from silvery to yellow; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins grey with dark margins; and breeding males with scattered tubercles on head and a tubercle on each flank scale (Ref. 59043).
A semi-anadromous species. Occurs mostly in shallow brackish coastal waters. While at sea, adults are most abundant at depth of 2.5-4.0 m and salinity of 2-4 ppt. Enters freshwater of estuaries, lagoons and lower reaches of large rivers to spawn. Commences movement to coast in August and to rivers in September, with a peak in October. Stops migration by end of November and overwinters in main river or estuaries. Continues spawning migration with breaking up of ice in March (Dniepr). Breeds in April-May. Adults migrate back to estuaries to forage immediately after spawning. Juveniles move to estuaries during first summer in August. Reported decline was due to blocking of almost all spawning rivers and decline of brackish areas in Black Sea basin (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
協力者画像Stamps, Coins Misc.音シガテラ（食中毒の名前）速度泳ぐ 型式カマOtoliths脳視覚
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00440 - 0.02274), b=3.00 (2.80 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 低い, ４．５年～１４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100).