Cephalopholis boenak, Chocolate hind : fisheries, aquarium

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Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch, 1790)

Chocolate hind
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Cephalopholis boenak   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) 鱸形目 (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Bloch.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 非迁移的; 深度上下限 1 - 64 m, usually 4 - 30 m (Ref. 90102).   熱帶; 32°N - 32°S, 29°E - 171°E (Ref. 5222)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Kenya to southern Mozambique eastward to the western Pacific. Reported from the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819). Not reported from oceanic islands in the Indian Ocean, except for Aldabra, Comoros, Madagascar, and the Andaman and Lakshadweep islands. Unknown from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and from the islands of Micronesia except for Palau. Record from Rodriguez by Heemstra & Randall (1984, Ref. 3153) could not be verified and is probably erroneous (Ref. 33390).
印度-西太平洋: 肯亞到莫三比克南部向東至西太平洋。 記錄來自阿拉弗拉海了。 (參考文獻 9819) 不記錄自印度洋的大洋性島嶼, 除了亞達伯拉,科摩洛,馬達加斯加與安達曼群島與拉克沙群島。 未知的從紅海,波斯灣, 而且從密克羅尼西亞的島嶼除了帛琉。 從羅德里格斯記錄由 Heemstra& Randall(1984, 參考文獻 3153) 無法確認而且可能是錯誤的.(參考文獻 33390)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 12.2, range 8 - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 48635); 最大年龄: 11 年 (Ref. 45317)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 9; 背的软条 (总数): 15-17; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. Brownish to greenish grey with dusky vertical bands over the body. White margins and black sub-margins on the median fins (Ref. 48635). Preopercle rounded, very finely serrate; no enlarged spines at angle, lower edge fleshy; characterized further by having ctenoid scales on body including abdomen; greatest depth of body 2.6-3.1 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins not usually reaching anus, 1.6-2.1 in head length (Ref. 90102).
褐色的到呈绿色的灰色有暗淡的在身体上的垂直条纹。 在中央的鳍上的白色的边缘与黑色的边缘附近.(参考文献 48635) 前鳃盖骨圆形的, 非常细锯齿状; 角落没有增大的棘, 下缘肉质的。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Mainly a coastal species (Ref. 48635). Inhabits silty dead reefs in protected waters. May also be seen on live coral (Ref. 089707). Secretive (Ref. 37816). Feeds mainly on fish (Ref. 30531) and crustaceans (Ref. 089707). Courtship and pair spawning were observed by Donaldson (1989, Ref. 6900). Diandric protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 45317).

主要地一个沿岸鱼种.(参考文献 48635) 在有遮蔽的水域中栖息于淤泥的死珊瑚礁区。 躲躲藏藏的.(参考文献 37816) 主要吃鱼 (参考文献 30531) 与甲壳动物。 求偶期与成对产卵被 Donaldson 观察了。 (1989, 参考文献 6900) 有双雄蕊的雌性先熟的雌雄同体.(参考文献 45317)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

印度-西太平洋: 肯亞到莫三比克南部向東至西太平洋。 記錄來自阿拉弗拉海了。 (參考文獻 9819) 不記錄自印度洋的大洋性島嶼, 除了亞達伯拉,科摩洛,馬達加斯加與安達曼群島與拉克沙群島。 未知的從紅海,波斯灣, 而且從密克羅尼西亞的島嶼除了帛琉。 從羅德里格斯記錄由 Heemstra& Randall(1984, 參考文獻 3153) 無法確認而且可能是錯誤的.(參考文獻 33390)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 16 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 自给性渔业; 水族馆: 商业性
FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

更多信息

俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
年龄范围
成长
体长-体重
体长-体长
体长-频率
形态测量图
型态特徵
仔鱼
稚鱼动力学
入添量
丰度
BRUVS
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Nutrients
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

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特别资料

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网络资源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1414 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.01051 - 0.01580), b=3.05 (3.02 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=1-2).
Prior r = 0.38, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.57, Based on 4 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 60.4 [34.1, 104.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.714 [0.387, 1.232] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.5, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.177 [0.107, 0.284] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.9 [20.9, 63.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 156 [57, 457] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.883 [0.619, 1.480] mg/100g (wet weight);