Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ Sống nổi và đáy; di cư trong nước ngọt (Ref. 51243). Temperate; 5°C - 25°C (Ref. 12468); 63°N - 43°N, 4°E - 56°E
Eurasia: large rivers draining to Baltic Sea (absent in northern Sweden and Finland north of 62°N), North Sea (Weser, Elbe), Black Sea, Sea of Azov (Don) and Caspian Sea, where it is abundant in Volga, rare in Ural. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - 27 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 59043); common length : 20.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 556); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 940.00 g (Ref. 6114)
Differs from Ballerus sapa by having superior mouth, 62-77 scales on lateral line, and small eye with diameter about 2/3 of snout length in individuals larger than 10 cm SL (Ref. 59043).
Occur in large lowland rivers with backwaters and also in eutrophic lowland lakes. Feed mainly on zooplankton in open water of backwaters and other still water bodies. Spawn along shores of rivers or in backwaters on submerged vegetation and also on gravel in moderate current. Migrate upriver in long distances to suitable spawning sites. Juveniles stay in backwaters and flooded zones along rivers. Enter freshened parts of seas to forage. Life span reaches more than 10 years. Locally threatened by habitat alterations along river banks (Ref. 59043).
Mostly spawn several times during their life. Spawning lasts usually for 1-2 weeks. Female spawn once a year. Male often guard spawning territories along the shoreline (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
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Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00499 - 0.01385), b=3.13 (2.99 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (K=0.18-0.19; tm=4-5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .