分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243). 溫帶; 5°C - 25°C (Ref. 12468); 63°N - 43°N, 4°E - 56°E
Eurasia: large rivers draining to Baltic Sea (absent in northern Sweden and Finland north of 62°N), North Sea (Weser, Elbe), Black Sea, Sea of Azov (Don) and Caspian Sea, where it is abundant in Volga, rare in Ural. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
歐亞大陸: 波羅的海，黑海，亞速海北方與裡海的流域。 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群).
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - 27 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 20.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大体重: 940.00 g (Ref. 6114)
Differs from Ballerus sapa by having superior mouth, 62-77 scales on lateral line, and small eye with diameter about 2/3 of snout length in individuals larger than 10 cm SL (Ref. 59043).
Occur in large lowland rivers with backwaters and also in eutrophic lowland lakes. Feed mainly on zooplankton in open water of backwaters and other still water bodies. Spawn along shores of rivers or in backwaters on submerged vegetation and also on gravel in moderate current. Migrate upriver in long distances to suitable spawning sites. Juveniles stay in backwaters and flooded zones along rivers. Enter freshened parts of seas to forage. Life span reaches more than 10 years. Locally threatened by habitat alterations along river banks (Ref. 59043).
栖息于大河的下面范围。 主要吃浮游生物。 在春天溯河回游而且产卵。 (参考文献 9696)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
Mostly spawn several times during their life. Spawning lasts usually for 1-2 weeks. Female spawn once a year. Male often guard spawning territories along the shoreline (Ref. 59043).歐亞大陸: 波羅的海，黑海，亞速海北方與裡海的流域。 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
合作者照片Stamps, Coins Misc.声音神经毒速度泳型鳃区Otoliths脑重体重比眼睛色素
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00499 - 0.01385), b=3.13 (2.99 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.18-0.19; tm=4-5).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .