(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river.
More on author: Shaw.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
laut; payau berasosiasi dengan karang; kisaran kedalaman 10 - 30 m (Ref. 48636). Tropical; 19°N - 23°S, 28°E - 150°W
Indo-Pacific: Yemen coast of the Gulf of Aden and southern Oman, along the east coast of Africa to Port Alfred, South Africa (33°S), east to the Caroline and Somoan islands; southern Japan to southern Queensland.
Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 48636); common length : 35.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 48636)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 8; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 9; Duri dubur 1; Sirip dubur lunak: 7. Diagnosis: Pectoral rays 16 (rarely 15 or 17). Gill rakers 5-7 + 18-21 (total 24-27)> Body depth 3.25-3.75 in SL; head length (HL) 2.9-3.25 in SL; snout length 1.65-1.95 in HL; barbel length 1.3-1.5 in HL. Longest dorsal spine 1.5-1.8 in HL; penultimate dorsal ray about equal to last dorsal ray in juveniles, 1.05-1.2 in length of last dorsal ray of adults; pectoral-fin length 1.35-1.55 in HL; pelvic-fin length 1.3-1.5 in HL. Body greenish brown to reddish brown dorsally, the scale edges narrowly dark, shading to whitish or pale pink ventrally, with a nearly round black spot as large or larger than eye on side of caudal peduncle, two-thirds of which lies above the lateral line; a large, horizontally elongate yellow spot (sometimes partly white) on lateral line below interdorsal space; barbels white; irregular pale blue lines extending anteroventrally and dorsoposteriorly from eye; second dorsal and anal fins with irregular oblique pale blue lines; caudal fin yellowish gray with faint blue lines paralleling rays; peritoneum dark brown (pale brown to white in other species of the genus except Parupeneus barberinus) (Ref. 54393).
Inhabit shallow sandy or silty areas (seagrass substrata) of coastal and inner lagoon reefs (Ref. 9710, 54393). Occur singly or in schools (Ref. 5213). Large adults usually at moderate depths to about 30 m (Ref. 48636). Feed on benthic invertebrates; the diet including small crabs, amphipods, shrimps, small octopuses, polychaete worms, and small fishes (Ref. 54393). Marketed fresh (Ref. 5284).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva
Randall, J.E., 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (36):64 p. (Ref. 54393)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 126983)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: komersial; Ikan buruan: ya
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.2 - 29, mean 28.2 °C (based on 442 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00958 - 0.01441), b=3.10 (3.07 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.67, 95% CL = 0.44 - 1.01, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 29.3 [14.0, 66.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.276 [0.137, 0.641] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [14.9, 21.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.12 [0.07, 0.23] g/100g ; Selenium = 44.7 [21.2, 118.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 178 [31, 850] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.611 [0.357, 1.147] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.