Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 70 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 28°N - 11°S
Indo-Pacific: Mauritius (Ref. 33390) and Seychelles (Ref. 10685); Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean (Ref. 30874) to the Marshall, Hawaiian and Marquesan islands. Western Central Atlantic: Bahamas, Cozumel to Isla Providencia and Curacao (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89972)
soft rays: 8. Body elongate, yellow or reddish brown. Black stripe through eye (Ref. 48635). Scales of lateral line large and well spaced; small ctenoid scales; black spot at base of last dorsal fin rays and white spot on dorsal midline just behind second dorsal fin (Ref. 26938).
Found in deep recesses of caves in the outer reef slope (Ref. 1602). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Nocturnal species (Ref. 7300). Swims upside-down on ceilings (Ref. 48635). Solitary or in pairs (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 28.8, mean 27.5 °C (based on 548 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00493 - 0.02329), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .