Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut berasosiasi dengan karang; nir-ruaya; kisaran kedalaman 1 - 60 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 30°N - 20°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (extending to Mossel Bay, South Africa, Ref. 5372) to the Hawaiian, Marquesan, and Ducie islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe and Rapa islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm 13.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 4859)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 12 - 13; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 22-25; Duri dubur 3; Sirip dubur lunak: 19 - 21.
May be seen in a variety of habitats ranging from rich coral reefs (Ref. 58652) to weedy and rubble covered areas (Ref. 1602). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Maybe found singly, in pairs, and in aggregations that roam over large distances in search of food. Feed mainly by tearing pieces from polychaetes, sea anemones, coral polyps, and algae (Ref. 1602). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).
Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil; Akuarium: Komersial
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 922 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02512 (0.01616 - 0.03904), b=2.98 (2.85 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 0.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): Tinggi, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum kurang dari 15 bulan (K>1).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 95.7 [53.6, 172.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.821 [0.507, 1.508] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.4, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.146 [0.089, 0.242] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.8 [17.0, 69.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 33.4 [10.1, 114.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.18 [0.78, 1.79] mg/100g (wet weight);