(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas associadas(os) a recifes; intervalo de profundidade 3 - 121 m (Ref. 58302), usually 5 - 60 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 30°N - 45°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian, Line, Marquesan, and Ducie islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Lord Howe, Kermadec and Rapa islands (Ref. 1602). Reported from New Zealand (Ref. 5755) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964).
Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 637); common length : 30.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 637)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais moles (total): 10-14; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais moles: 8 - 10. Adults variable from grey to red (Ref. 48635). On some individuals, the hourglass- or saddle-shaped markings along its side may be obliterated by an almost solid dark red band (Ref. 1602). Large individuals are often thick-bodied, giving a hump-backed appearance (Ref. 1602).
Inhabits deep lagoon and seaward reefs to depths over 40 m (Ref. 9710); sometimes found on sandy bottoms concealing itself in the sand. Prefers to rest on hard surfaces and frequently occurs in pairs (Ref. 37816). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on small fishes by seizing these from passing schools, also shrimps (Ref. 89972). Caught with various types of artisanal gear; sold fresh or dried salted in markets. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Ameaça para o homem
Pescarias: espécies comerciais
ReferênciasAquaculturaPerfil para aquaculturaEstirpesGenéticaFrequência dos alelosHereditariedadeDoençasProcessamentoNutrientsMass conversion
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 2250 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00399 - 0.00659), b=3.19 (3.14 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Elevada, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população menor que 15 meses (K=0.4).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 52.9 [19.3, 116.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.583 [0.258, 1.112] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.8 [12.9, 18.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.0837 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.2 [17.1, 77.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 87.3 [21.7, 291.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.934 [0.487, 1.428] mg/100g (wet weight);