(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 3 - 121 m (Ref. 58302), usually 5 - 60 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 30°N - 45°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian, Line, Marquesan, and Ducie islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Lord Howe, Kermadec and Rapa islands (Ref. 1602). Reported from New Zealand (Ref. 5755) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964).
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 637); common length : 30.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 637)
Spine dorsali (totale): 0; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 10-14; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 8 - 10. Adults variable from grey to red (Ref. 48635). On some individuals, the hourglass- or saddle-shaped markings along its side may be obliterated by an almost solid dark red band (Ref. 1602). Large individuals are often thick-bodied, giving a hump-backed appearance (Ref. 1602).
Inhabits deep lagoon and seaward reefs to depths over 40 m (Ref. 9710); sometimes found on sandy bottoms concealing itself in the sand. Prefers to rest on hard surfaces and frequently occurs in pairs (Ref. 37816). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on small fishes by seizing these from passing schools, also shrimps (Ref. 89972). Caught with various types of artisanal gear; sold fresh or dried salted in markets. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 2250 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00401 - 0.00656), b=3.20 (3.15 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (K=0.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .