(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut berasosiasi dengan karang; kisaran kedalaman 3 - 121 m (Ref. 58302), usually 5 - 60 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 30°N - 45°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian, Line, Marquesan, and Ducie islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Lord Howe, Kermadec and Rapa islands (Ref. 1602). Reported from New Zealand (Ref. 5755) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 637); common length : 30.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 637)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 10-14; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 8 - 10. Adults variable from grey to red (Ref. 48635). On some individuals, the hourglass- or saddle-shaped markings along its side may be obliterated by an almost solid dark red band (Ref. 1602). Large individuals are often thick-bodied, giving a hump-backed appearance (Ref. 1602).
Inhabits deep lagoon and seaward reefs to depths over 40 m (Ref. 9710); sometimes found on sandy bottoms concealing itself in the sand. Prefers to rest on hard surfaces and frequently occurs in pairs (Ref. 37816). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on small fishes by seizing these from passing schools, also shrimps (Ref. 89972). Caught with various types of artisanal gear; sold fresh or dried salted in markets. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ancaman kepada manusia
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanMass conversion
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 2250 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00401 - 0.00656), b=3.20 (3.15 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): Tinggi, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum kurang dari 15 bulan (K=0.4).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .