";} } ?> Torpedo fuscomaculata, Black-spotted torpedo

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Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters, 1855

Black-spotted torpedo
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drawing shows typical species in Torpedinidae.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Peters.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

海洋; 半咸淡水 礁区鱼类; 深度上下限 0 - 439 m (Ref. 11228), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 114953). 熱帶; 2°S - 35°S, 17°E - 59°E (Ref. 114953)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Western Indian Ocean: from South Africa to Zanzibar and possibly as far north as the Kenyan coast. (Ref. 83892). Possibly occurring off smaller islands in the Indian Ocean but identity of specimens uncertain and need verification (Ref. 5578). Found in estuaries in South Africa during periods of high salinity (Ref. 114953).
西印度洋: 確定從莫三比克南部到南非的 Agulhas 角。 可能地出現在印度洋的小島外但是標本的鑑定不確定的與需要確認。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 2712)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

Large ray with a small caudal fin and small papillae around the spiracles (Ref. 5578). Dull grey above with variable markings, often in the form of dark lines or large spots; white below (Ref. 5578).
大型 鱼呼吸孔的周围具有一个小的尾鳍与小的乳突。 (参考文献 5578) 暗灰色的上方有多变的斑纹, 常见于黑色线条的形式或大的斑点中; 腹面白色的.(参考文献 5578)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits estuaries and intertidal zone down to 439 m (Ref. 5578). Found in sandy areas near deep rocky reefs (Ref. 2712). Feeds on fishes and cuttlefish (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Large prey probably stunned by its powerful electric discharge (Ref. 5578). Young born in the summer (Ref. 5578). Common accidental catch of anglers (Ref. 114953).

栖息于河口,而且潮间带向下至 439 公尺。 (参考文献 5578) 发现于在深的岩礁附近的沙地了。 (参考文献 2712) 吃鱼与墨鱼。 (参考文献 5578) 卵胎生的.(参考文献 50449) 大的猎物可能打昏用它的有力放电.(参考文献 5578) 幼鱼出生于夏天了。 (参考文献 5578)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).西印度洋: 確定從莫三比克南部到南非的 Agulhas 角。 可能地出現在印度洋的小島外但是標本的鑑定不確定的與需要確認。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Carvalho, Marcelo | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Torpedinidae. p. 112-113. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 2712)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 125652)

  数据缺失 (DD) ; Date assessed: 24 April 2018

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

另外地





人类利用

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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特别资料

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网络资源

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 12 - 25.8, mean 19.1 °C (based on 171 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00771 - 0.03741), b=2.94 (2.75 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.75 se; based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100).