Torpedo fuscomaculata, Black-spotted torpedo

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Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters, 1855

Black-spotted torpedo
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drawing shows typical species in Torpedinidae.

Classification / Names ຊື່ສາມັນ | ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ | Catalog of Fishes(ຕະກຸນ, ຊະນິດ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ກຸ່ມປາກະດູກອ່ອນ (ເຊັ່ນ: ປາສະຫລາມ, ປາຜາໄລ) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Peters.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range ນິເວດວິທະຍາ

; ສັດທະເລ; ນ້ຳກ່ອຍ ກ່ຽວກັນຫີນ; ລະດັບຄວາມເລິກ 0 - 439 m (Ref. 11228), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 114953).   Tropical; 2°S - 35°S, 17°E - 59°E (Ref. 114953)

ການແຜ່ກະຈາຍ ປະເທດ | ເຂດ FAO | ລະບົບນິເວດ | ການປະກົດຕົວ | Point map | ການແນະນຳ | Faunafri

Western Indian Ocean: from South Africa to Zanzibar and possibly as far north as the Kenyan coast. (Ref. 83892). Possibly occurring off smaller islands in the Indian Ocean but identity of specimens uncertain and need verification (Ref. 5578). Found in estuaries in South Africa during periods of high salinity (Ref. 114953).

ຂະໜາດ / ນ້ຳໜັກ / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 2712)

Short description ສະລີລະວິທະຍາ | ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…

Large ray with a small caudal fin and small papillae around the spiracles (Ref. 5578). Dull grey above with variable markings, often in the form of dark lines or large spots; white below (Ref. 5578).

ຊີວະສາດ     ຄຳແປສັບ (ຕ.ຢ. epibenthic)

Inhabits estuaries and intertidal zone down to 439 m (Ref. 5578). Found in sandy areas near deep rocky reefs (Ref. 2712). Feeds on fishes and cuttlefish (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Large prey probably stunned by its powerful electric discharge (Ref. 5578). Young born in the summer (Ref. 5578). Common accidental catch of anglers (Ref. 114953).

Life cycle and mating behavior ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ | ການສືບພັນ | ການວາງໄຂ່ | ໄຂ່ | ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ | ຕົວອ່ອນ

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).

Main reference Upload your references | ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ | ຜູ້ປະສານງານ : Carvalho, Marcelo | ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື

Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Torpedinidae. p. 112-113. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 2712)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Data deficient (DD) ; Date assessed: 24 April 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Other





Human uses

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 12 - 25.8, mean 19.1 °C (based on 171 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.00909 - 0.03994), b=2.88 (2.69 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
ຊັ້ນເຂດຮ້ອນ (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.75 se; based on food items.
ຄວາມຢືດຢຸ່ນ (Ref. 120179):  ຕຳ່ຫຼາຍ, ປະຊາກອນຕຳ່ສຸດທີ່ໃຊ້ເວລາສອງເທົ່າຫຼາຍກວ່າ 14 ປີ (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .