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Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters, 1855

Black-spotted torpedo
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drawing shows typical species in Torpedinidae.

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes(Gattung, Arten) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (Haie und Rochen) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Peters.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

seewasser; brackwasser riff-verbunden; tiefenbereich 0 - 439 m (Ref. 11228), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical; 2°S - 35°S, 17°E - 59°E (Ref. 114953)

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Western Indian Ocean: from South Africa to Zanzibar and possibly as far north as the Kenyan coast. (Ref. 83892). Possibly occurring off smaller islands in the Indian Ocean but identity of specimens uncertain and need verification (Ref. 5578). Found in estuaries in South Africa during periods of high salinity (Ref. 114953).

Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 2712)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Large ray with a small caudal fin and small papillae around the spiracles (Ref. 5578). Dull grey above with variable markings, often in the form of dark lines or large spots; white below (Ref. 5578).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Inhabits estuaries and intertidal zone down to 439 m (Ref. 5578). Found in sandy areas near deep rocky reefs (Ref. 2712). Feeds on fishes and cuttlefish (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Large prey probably stunned by its powerful electric discharge (Ref. 5578). Young born in the summer (Ref. 5578). Common accidental catch of anglers (Ref. 114953).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : Carvalho, Marcelo | Partner

Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Torpedinidae. p. 112-113. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 2712)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 125652)

  Daten mangelhaft (DD) ; Date assessed: 24 April 2018

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

Other





Nutzung durch Menschen

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

Mehr Information

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Einführungen
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Ökologie
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Nahrungsmenge
Namen
Synonyme
Metabolismus
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Ökotoxikologie
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Ablaichen
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Fecundity
Eier
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Alter/Größe
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Morphometrie
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Referenzen
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Geschwindigkeit
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Kiemenoberfläche
Otoliths
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Sehfähigkeit

Tools

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Internet Quellen

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | FishWatcher Einträge suchen | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Gattung, Arten | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: Genom, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Gehe zu, Suchen | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 12 - 25.8, mean 19.1 °C (based on 171 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00771 - 0.03741), b=2.94 (2.75 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.75 se; based on food items.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  niedrig, Verdopplung der Population dauert 4,5 - 14 Jahre. (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100).