Myxini (hagfishes) > Myxiniformes
(Hagfishes) > Myxinidae
(Hagfishes) > Myxininae
Etymology: Myxine: Greek, 'myxa' from mucus or slime, referring to slime production (Ref. 45335, 117245).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; non-migratory; depth range 700 - 1500 m (Ref. 26938). Deep-water
Western Central Atlantic: Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26938)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 0. Body gray; head white; without scales. Internal gill pouches 7, connected to a single gill opening on each side. Dorsal and paired fins absent; anal and caudal fins joined (Ref. 26938). Mucous pores along each side of the body: prebranchial 26-35, trunk 60-70; tail 9-12; total 101-115. Unicusps: anterior 8-10; posterior 8-10; total 42-48 (Ref. 40869).
Found burrowing in mud in very deep water (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Copulatory organ absent. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Ref. 51361 ).
Fernholm, B., 1998. Hagfish systematics. p. 33-44. In J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber and H. Malte (eds.) The biology of hagfishes. Chapman & Hall, London. 578 p. (Ref. 31276)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.9 - 7, mean 5.5 °C (based on 93 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00115 (0.00044 - 0.00299), b=3.03 (2.80 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .