Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 20 - 500 m (Ref. 49962), usually 90 - 300 m (Ref. 49962). Deep-water; 40°N - 27°N, 125°W - 114°W
Eastern Central Pacific: Usal, Mendocino County in central California, USA to central Baja California and Guadalupe Island (off north central Baja California) in Mexico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 39.3, range 42 - 52 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 49962); max. published weight: 13.0 kg (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 55 years (Ref. 49962)
Found on the bottom at moderate depths, to 366 m (Ref. 2850). Juveniles are pelagic (Ref. 36715), over fine sand and clay, whereas adults (>44 cm TL) inhabit rocky areas at 90-300 m (Ref. 49962). Viviparous, with planktonic larvae (Ref. 36715).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.8 - 11.5, mean 8.8 °C (based on 16 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00562 - 0.01952), b=3.07 (2.91 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 21.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tm=11-12; tmax=55; K=0.05).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.18 - 0.41, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .