Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marina bottenlevande; djupintervall 80 - 540 m (Ref. 5217). Subtropical; 9°C - 14°C (Ref. 33985); 46°N - 5°N, 98°W - 53°W
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada south along the U.S., Gulf of Mexico from the Florida Keys, Tampa (Florida) to the Texas/Mexico border, and off Mexico from Tabasco to the Yucatan Peninsula, and along South America from the Gulf of Cariaco (Venezuela) to Suriname (R. Robertson and J. Dooley pers. comm. 2013).
Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age
Maturity: Lm 42.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 125 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 3276); 95.0 cm FL (female); common length : 90.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 3276); publicerad maxvikt: 30.0 kg (Ref. 9988); rapporterad maxålder: 35 år (Ref. 6086)
Most common around 200 m, usually over mud or sand bottom and occasionally over rough bottom (Ref. 9988); prefers temperature of 8-17°C (Ref. 5951). Feeds mainly on shrimp and crabs, but also takes fish, squid, bivalves and holothurians. Sensitive to cold water (Ref. 9988), a mass die-off occurred in 1882, after which the species was rare for decades, presumably due to unusually cold water (Ref. 7251). Marketed fresh or frozen; can be steamed, pan-fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Dooley, J.K., 1978. Branchiostegidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Volume 1. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3276)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fiskeri: kommersiell; sportfisk: ja
MedarbetareBilderStamps, Coins Misc.LjudCiguateraHastighetSimsättGälytaOtolithsHjärnstorlekSyn
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.6 - 22.3, mean 16.2 °C (based on 108 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00411 - 0.01467), b=3.11 (2.94 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179
): Låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid 4,5-14 år (K=0.09-0.13; tm=5; tmax=35; Fec=195,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .