分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(属, 种) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Teleostei > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Lotidae
(Hakes and burbots)
Etymology: Lota: French name for the cod (Ref. 45335); lota: From the French word "la Lotte" meaning codfish (Ref. 10294).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; pH range: 7.5 - ? ; dH range: 18 - ?; 河川洄游 (Ref. 59043); 深度上下限 1 - 700 m (Ref. 1998). 溫帶; 4°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 78°N - 40°N, 180°W - 180°E
Circumarctic in freshwater (Ref. 1371). Europe: Loire drainage, France eastward to White, Barents and Arctic Sea basins; upper Volga drainage; western Caspian basin; rivers draining to Black Sea; Rhône drainage (France); in Italy native only in Po drainage; eastrward England (now extirpated). In Siberia eastward to River Lena. Reported that populations from eastern Siberia and North America belong to a different species, Lota maculosa (Ref. 59043). North America: Throughout Canada, Alaska and northern USA (south to Pennysylvannia, Kentucky, Missouri, Wyoming and Washington (Ref. 86798).
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm 37.5, range 35 - 40 cm
Max length : 152 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 27547); common length : 40.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 1371); 最大体重: 34.0 kg (Ref. 27547); 最大年龄: 20 年 (Ref. 556)
背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 67-96; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 58 - 84; 脊椎骨: 50 - 67. Diagnosed from all other freshwater fishes in Europe by its pelvic fin origin anterior to pectoral fin origin and by having one central barbel on lower jaw (Ref. 59043). Distinguished by the long second dorsal fin, at least 6 times as long as the first, and a single barbel on the chin (Ref. 27547). Gill rakers short (Ref. 27547). First dorsal short; second dorsal and anal fins joined to caudal; pectorals short and rounded; caudal rounded (Ref. 27547), with 40 rays (Ref. 2196). Color is yellow, light tan to brown with a pattern of dark brown or black on the body, head and fins (Ref. 1371). Pelvic fins pale, others dark and mottled (Ref. 27547).
区别的特徵为长的第二背鳍鳍了, 至少 6 在下巴上倍长于第一个 , 与一个触须。 (参考文献 27547) 鳃耙短.(参考文献 27547) 第一背鳍短; 第二背鳍与臀鳍连到了尾部的; 胸鳍短的而且圆的; 尾鳍圆的 (参考文献 27547), 与 40个鳍条.(参考文献 2196) 色彩是黄色, 淡的黄褐色的褐色有图案深褐色或黑色的在身体，头部与鳍上.(参考文献 1371) 腹鳍灰白的, 其它黑色与杂色的.(参考文献 27547)
The only member of Lotidae family which lives in freshwater. Crepuscular and nocturnal (Ref. 11941). Adults are found in well oxygenated flowing waters and large, deep lakes as well as large rivers with slow-moving current (Ref. 5723, 10294). They occur from estuaries of large lowland rivers as well as from small mountain streams, preferring deep waters in summer (Ref. 59043). They seek shelter under rocks, in crevices on the river banks, among roots of trees and dense vegetation (Ref. 30578, 10294). Those in rivers tend to congregate in deep holes throughout the year, except at spawning (Ref. 27547). Movements into shallower water during summer nights are related to feeding (Ref. 1998). Smaller individuals feed on insect larvae, crayfish, mollusks and other invertebrates with a changing preference for fishes in larger individuals (Ref. 1998, 10294). In Central Europe, males mature at 2 years while females at 3 years (Ref. 59043). Spawning occurs from November to March, at temperatures below 6°C in groups of up to 20 interlaced individuals forming a ball about 60 cm in diameter which constantly moves and rolls on the bottom while releasing eggs and sperms (Ref. 59043). May undertake short spawning migrations (Ref. 59043). Eggs are semipelagic, 1.2-1.8 mm in diameter and slightly sticky hatching after 40-70 days (Ref. 59043). Larvae are positively phototactic, floating below the surface in March and April (Ref. 59043). Larvae feed on drifting invertebrates or zooplankton (Ref. 59043). Source of oil. Sold mainly salted. Liver is sold smoked or canned in Europe (Ref. 1998). Processed into fishmeal (Ref. 1998). Because of its nocturnal habits and its slow movements, this fish is not very much appreciated by sport fishermen. Flesh is tasty but a little dry (Ref. 30578). Locally threatened due to river regulation (Ref. 59043).
生活在淡水中的该科的唯一成员。 晨昏而夜行的.(参考文献 11941) 用缓慢移动的水流栖息于深的湖与大河 (参考文献 5723) 。 在河岸上的裂隙中，在岩石下寻找遮蔽, 在树与茂密的植物根之中。 (参考文献 30578) 那些在河倾向在深潭中聚集全年度, 除了在产卵之外.(参考文献 27547) 进入较浅的水域之内的运动夜晚被与进食有关夏天时.(参考文献 1998) 较小的个体吃昆虫幼生，小龙虾, 软件动物，而且其他的无脊椎动物具有一个较大的个体中改变对鱼的偏爱。 (参考文献 1998) 油的来源。 贩卖主要盐腌。 肝脏被卖在欧洲烟熏或装于罐头。 (参考文献 1998) 加工成鱼粉了。 (参考文献 1998) 由于它的夜行习惯与它的慢运动, 这一个鱼非常不被获得运动钓鱼者赏识。 肉是好吃的但是一个小乾.(参考文献 30578)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
There appears to be individual movements into spawning areas with the males arriving first at spawning areas (Ref. 27547). It occurs at night, with spawners forming a great globular mass, each pushing toward the center (Ref. 28694), or at least milling around close together (Ref. 28697), releasing eggs or sperm. Observed to make postspawning runs upriver, apparently for feeding (Ref. 28697). Eggs hatch after 40-70 days. After about 2 months, juveniles are benthic, grow rapidly, reach about 8 cm SL within first year. (Ref. 59043). 在淡水中的 Circumarctic。
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 实验的; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00417 - 0.00661), b=3.04 (2.97 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.05; tm=2-7; tmax=20).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 12.9 [7.2, 34.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.259 [0.142, 0.500] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [16.2, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.382 [0.200, 0.694] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.4 [8.5, 62.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 4.33 [1.21, 18.17] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.671 [0.485, 0.920] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.