Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; acqua dolce demersale. Temperate; 49°N - 39°N
North America: Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River, Hudson Bay (in Red River) and Mississippi River basins from Quebec in Canada and Vermont in USA to southern Ontario in Canada and northern Minnesota in USA, and south to Ohio River in Kentucky, USA.
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 5723); common length : 52.5 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 12193); peso massimo pubblicato: 4.2 kg (Ref. 4699)
Pigmentation: For both males and females, sides are yellow-gold, dorsal surfaces are olive in color, and caudal fins are bright red on the outside and becoming orange at the center.
Occurs in sandy to rocky pools and runs of medium to large rivers, and also in lakes. Spawning occurs along edges and midstream areas of riffles, on pebble, cobble, and gravel substrates (Ref. 49090).
Spawn in groups with between two and seven males and one or two females. Males pose on other side of a female prior to spawning. Brisk vibrations of the dorsal and caudal fins occur during spawning. Gametes are released while males and females rolled over one another. Mean duration of spawning event is 4.4 seconds +/- 0.5 s. Mean duration between spawning events is 22.2 +/- 5.3 mins (Ref. 49090).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Pesce da pesca sportiva: si
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneNutrientsMass conversion
CollaboratoriImmaginiStamps, Coins Misc.SuoniCiguateraVelocitàModalità di nuotoArea branchialeOtolithsCervelliVista
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00202 - 0.01186), b=3.10 (2.89 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 4.5 - 14 anni (tm=5-13).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .