Merluccius merluccius, European hake : fisheries

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Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758)

European hake
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Merluccius merluccius   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Merluccius merluccius (European hake)
Merluccius merluccius
Picture by Svensen, R.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes(Gênero, Espécies) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Gadiformes (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes)
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas demersal; intervalo de profundidade 30 - 1075 m (Ref. 58452), usually 70 - 400 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 76°N - 18°N, 30°W - 42°E (Ref. 58452)

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway and Iceland, southward to Mauritania. Also in the Mediterranean Sea and along the southern coast of the Black Sea.

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 42.7, range 20 - 70 cm
Max length : 140 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 1371); common length : 45.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 1371); peso máx. publicado: 15.0 kg (Ref. 1371); idade máx. registrada: 20 anos (Ref. 35388)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais (total): 43-51; Raios anais : 36 - 40. Inside of mouth and branchial cavity black. Second dorsal and anal fins notched. First vertebra and neural spine attached to skull. Vertebrae 50-52.

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Found usually between 70 and 370 m depth. Adults live close to the bottom during day-time, but move off-bottom at night. Adults feed mainly on fish (small hakes, anchovies, pilchard, herrings, cod fishes, sardines and gadoid species) and squids. The young feed on crustaceans (especially euphausiids and amphipods). Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Almost entirely marketed fresh, whole or filleted, to specialized restaurants or retail markets (Ref. 58452). Utilized fresh, dried or salted and frozen; can be steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Stocks seem to be over-fished (Ref. 35388).

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Continuous recruitment of oocytes connotes indeterminate fecundity for this species (Ref. 79799).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 123251)

  Segura ou pouco preocupante (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 October 2015

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Harmless





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: altamente comercial
FAO - pescarias: desembarques, perfil da espécie; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Mais informação

Referências
Aquacultura
Perfil para aquacultura
Estirpes
Genética
Frequências alélicas
Hereditariedade
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Nutrients
Conversão de massa
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Área branquial
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.9 - 15.4, mean 10.2 °C (based on 672 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00428 - 0.00535), b=3.11 (3.08 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.0 (8.4 - 10.4) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 103 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.07-0.3; tmax=20; Fecundity=7 million).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.80, Based on 16 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (65 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 10.9 [4.7, 24.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.195 [0.094, 0.386] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.5, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.248 [0.174, 0.355] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.5 [17.4, 56.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.3 [4.4, 41.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.26 [0.18, 0.38] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.