Merluccius merluccius, European hake : fisheries

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Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758)

European hake
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Merluccius merluccius   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Merluccius merluccius (European hake)
Merluccius merluccius
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分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Gadiformes (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes)
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海 底生の; 深さの範囲 30 - 1075 m (Ref. 58452), usually 70 - 400 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 76°N - 18°N, 30°W - 42°E (Ref. 58452)

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Eastern Atlantic: Norway and Iceland, southward to Mauritania. Also in the Mediterranean Sea and along the southern coast of the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 42.7, range 20 - 70 cm
Max length : 140 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 1371); common length : 45.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 1371); 最大公表体重: 15.0 kg (Ref. 1371); 最大記録サイズ: 20 年 (Ref. 35388)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 背鰭 (合計): 43-51; 臀鰭: 36 - 40. Inside of mouth and branchial cavity black. Second dorsal and anal fins notched. First vertebra and neural spine attached to skull. Vertebrae 50-52.

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Found usually between 70 and 370 m depth. Adults live close to the bottom during day-time, but move off-bottom at night. Adults feed mainly on fish (small hakes, anchovies, pilchard, herrings, cod fishes, sardines and gadoid species) and squids. The young feed on crustaceans (especially euphausiids and amphipods). Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Almost entirely marketed fresh, whole or filleted, to specialized restaurants or retail markets (Ref. 58452). Utilized fresh, dried or salted and frozen; can be steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Stocks seem to be over-fished (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Continuous recruitment of oocytes connotes indeterminate fecundity for this species (Ref. 79799).

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター | 協力者

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 123251)

  軽度懸念 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 October 2015

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Harmless





Human uses

水産業: 高い商業の
FAO - 水産業: landings, 種の外形; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

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参考文献
水産養殖
水産養殖の紹介
緊張
遺伝子の
対立遺伝子頻度
遺伝
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行列
Nutrients
Mass conversion
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シガテラ(食中毒の名前)
速度
泳ぐ 型式
カマ
Otoliths

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インターネットの情報源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: 部類, | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - 水産業: landings, 種の外形; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: ゲノム, ヌクレオチド | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国のデーターベース | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 生命の木 | Wikipedia: 行く, 検索する | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物に関する記録

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.9 - 15.4, mean 10.2 °C (based on 672 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00428 - 0.00535), b=3.11 (3.08 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.0 (8.4 - 10.4) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 103 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  手段, 1.4年~4.4年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.07-0.3; tmax=20; Fecundity=7 million).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.80, Based on 16 stock assessments.
弱み (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (65 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 10.9 [4.7, 24.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.195 [0.094, 0.386] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.5, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.248 [0.174, 0.355] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.5 [17.4, 56.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.3 [4.4, 41.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.26 [0.18, 0.38] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.