Merluccius merluccius, European hake : fisheries

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Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758)

European hake
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Merluccius merluccius   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Merluccius merluccius (European hake)
Merluccius merluccius
Picture by Svensen, R.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Gadiformes (Cods) 鱈形目 (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes) 無鬚鱈科 (Merluccid hakes)
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 居於水底的; 深度上下限 30 - 1075 m (Ref. 58452), usually 70 - 400 m (Ref. 35388).   溫帶; 76°N - 18°N, 30°W - 42°E (Ref. 58452)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway and Iceland, southward to Mauritania. Also in the Mediterranean Sea and along the southern coast of the Black Sea.
東大西洋: 挪威與冰島,向南至茅利塔尼亞。 也在地中海中而且沿著黑海的南部海岸。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 42.7, range 20 - 70 cm
Max length : 140 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1371); common length : 45.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1371); 最大體重: 15.0 kg (Ref. 1371); 最大年齡: 20 年 (Ref. 35388)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 43-51; 臀鰭軟條: 36 - 40. Inside of mouth and branchial cavity black. Second dorsal and anal fins notched. First vertebra and neural spine attached to skull. Vertebrae 50-52.
口腔與鰓室裡面黑色。 第二背鰭與臀鰭凹槽。 第一個脊椎骨與髓棘依附於頭蓋骨了。 脊椎骨 50-52.

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found usually between 70 and 370 m depth. Adults live close to the bottom during day-time, but move off-bottom at night. Adults feed mainly on fish (small hakes, anchovies, pilchard, herrings, cod fishes, sardines and gadoid species) and squids. The young feed on crustaceans (especially euphausiids and amphipods). Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Almost entirely marketed fresh, whole or filleted, to specialized restaurants or retail markets (Ref. 58452). Utilized fresh, dried or salted and frozen; can be steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Stocks seem to be over-fished (Ref. 35388).

通常在 70 與 370 公尺深之間發現。 成魚在白天的時候接近底部生活, 但是離開-在晚上的底部。 成魚主要捕食魚 (小的鱈魚,鯷魚,沙丁魚,鯡魚,鱈魚魚,沙丁魚與雪科的種) 與烏賊。 幼魚吃甲殼動物。 (尤其磷蝦與片腳類動物) 分批產卵者是.(參考文獻 51846) 生鮮使用, 乾燥或鹽醃與冷凍; 能被蒸, 油炸, 微波而且燒烤。 (參考文獻 9988) 分枝似乎是被過度漁撈.(參考文獻 35388)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Continuous recruitment of oocytes connotes indeterminate fecundity for this species (Ref. 79799).東大西洋: 挪威與冰島,向南至茅利塔尼亞。 也在地中海中而且沿著黑海的南部海岸。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 October 2015

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性
FAO - 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.9 - 15.4, mean 10.2 °C (based on 672 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00428 - 0.00535), b=3.11 (3.08 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.0 (8.4 - 10.4) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 103 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.07-0.3; tmax=20; Fecundity=7 million).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.80, Based on 16 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (65 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 10.9 [4.7, 24.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.195 [0.094, 0.386] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.5, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.248 [0.174, 0.355] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.5 [17.4, 56.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.3 [4.4, 41.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.26 [0.18, 0.38] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.