(Carps) > Leuciscidae
(Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Scardinius: A range of lofty mountains, Scardus, forming the boundary between Moesia and Macedonia; erythrophthalmus: Name from Greek words scar=a kind of fish; din=terrible, whirling; erythro=red; phthalm=the eye (Ref. 79012) More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ Sống nổi và đáy; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 15; di cư trong nước ngọt (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 2°C - 22°C (Ref. 27368); 62°N - 36°N, 10°W - 70°E
Eurasia: Most European rivers north of Pyrenees and Alps, eastward to Ural and Eya drainages, Aral and White Sea basins; Black Sea basin in Europe and northern Asia Minor. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic basin, Italy, Greece south of Pinios drainage, Great Britain north of 54 N, Ireland and Scandinavia north of 62° N (Ref. 59043). Definitely absent in Siberia. Reports from this area arose from the confusion between the rudd and the roach (Ref. 1441). Introduced to several countries. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.7 cm TL (female); common length : 20.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 556); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: g; Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 19 các năm (Ref. 27368)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 3; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 8-9; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 3; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 8 - 12; Động vật có xương sống: 36 - 39. Distinguished from its congeners in Europe by the following combination of characters: 39-42 scales along lateral line; anal fin with 10-13½ branched rays; 9-12 gill rakers; dorsal head profile straight or slightly convex, snout pointing forward, tip at or slightly above level of middle of eye; back not humped behind nape; eye bit close to dorsal head profile when viewed laterally; articulation of lower jaw in front of anterior margin of eye; head and body compressed, head width 13-14% SL; head length 24-28% SL; caudal peduncle depth 1.5-2.0 times in its length, 11-12% SL; and all fins with reddish hue, pelvic fin deep red (Ref. 59043).
Caudal fin with 18-19 rays (Ref. 2196)
Occurs mainly in nutrient-rich, well vegetated lowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes. Feeds mainly on plankton, terrestrial insects and plant material. Breeds on roots or submerged plants. Can adapt to unfavorable environmental condition (Ref. 59043). Colorless or pale yellow eggs are found attached to vegetation in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Consumed fresh (Ref. 30578). Threatened due to the introduction of other species (Ref. 26100).
Males gather at spawning grounds and drive ripe females, often with much splashing, into dense vegetation to spawn (Ref. 59043). Eggs are very sticky (Ref. 59043) and colorless or pale yellow which are found attached to vegetation in shallow water (Ref. 41678).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 52336)
Các nghề cá: buôn bán nhỏ; Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Tính thương mại; cá để chơi: đúng; Bể nuôi cá: Tính thương mại; mồi: usually
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Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00731 - 0.00904), b=3.15 (3.12 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.39 se; based on food items.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): thấp, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 4.5 - 14 năm (K=0.09-0.18; tm=3-4; tmax=19).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 36.9 [15.8, 85.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.336 [0.157, 0.666] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.2, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 1.25 [0.53, 2.97] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.8 [5.1, 35.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 39.7 [11.1, 145.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.473 [0.286, 0.855] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.