Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rudd : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium, bait

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Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Rudd
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Scardinius erythrophthalmus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Leuciscidae (Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Scardinius: A range of lofty mountains, Scardus, forming the boundary between Moesia and Macedonia;  erythrophthalmus: Name from Greek words scar=a kind of fish; din=terrible, whirling; erythro=red; phthalm=the eye (Ref. 79012)  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 15; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ).   溫帶; 2°C - 22°C (Ref. 27368); 62°N - 36°N, 10°W - 70°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eurasia: Most European rivers north of Pyrenees and Alps, eastward to Ural and Eya drainages, Aral and White Sea basins; Black Sea basin in Europe and northern Asia Minor. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic basin, Italy, Greece south of Pinios drainage, Great Britain north of 54 N, Ireland and Scandinavia north of 62° N (Ref. 59043). Definitely absent in Siberia. Reports from this area arose from the confusion between the rudd and the roach (Ref. 1441). Introduced to several countries. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
歐亞大陸: 廣泛地在北方的流域, 波羅的海黑海 ,里海 (從南部海岸的 Emba ,烏拉河與窩瓦河到河) 與鹹海中的歐洲與中亞傳佈。 (參考文獻 33550) 引進了一些國家。 明確地不存在於西伯利亞。 來自這區域的報告引起了在赤睛魚與 roach 魚之間的從混淆。 (參考文獻 1441) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 8.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.7 cm TL (female); common length : 20.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大体重: g; 最大年龄: 19 年 (Ref. 27368)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 3; 背的软条 (总数): 8-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8 - 12; 脊椎骨: 36 - 39. Distinguished from its congeners in Europe by the following combination of characters: 39-42 scales along lateral line; anal fin with 10-13½ branched rays; 9-12 gill rakers; dorsal head profile straight or slightly convex, snout pointing forward, tip at or slightly above level of middle of eye; back not humped behind nape; eye bit close to dorsal head profile when viewed laterally; articulation of lower jaw in front of anterior margin of eye; head and body compressed, head width 13-14% SL; head length 24-28% SL; caudal peduncle depth 1.5-2.0 times in its length, 11-12% SL; and all fins with reddish hue, pelvic fin deep red (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 18-19 rays (Ref. 2196)
尾鳍有 18-19个鳍条 (参考文献 2196)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs mainly in nutrient-rich, well vegetated lowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes. Feeds mainly on plankton, terrestrial insects and plant material. Breeds on roots or submerged plants. Can adapt to unfavorable environmental condition (Ref. 59043). Colorless or pale yellow eggs are found attached to vegetation in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Consumed fresh (Ref. 30578). Threatened due to the introduction of other species (Ref. 26100).

栖息于湖,河,沼泽地,管与池塘在哪里有最少的水流。 杂食性,吃无脊椎动物 (包括昆虫幼生与成鱼) 与植物。 虽然成鱼活跃地吃,大型植物出现在环境的丰度,他们为杂草的生物学清扫不是一个有效的种。 无色或白黄色的卵被发现在浅水区中依附于植物。 (参考文献 41678) 生鲜消费了。 (参考文献 30578) 受到威胁的由于其他鱼种的引入.(参考文献 26100)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Males gather at spawning grounds and drive ripe females, often with much splashing, into dense vegetation to spawn (Ref. 59043). Eggs are very sticky (Ref. 59043) and colorless or pale yellow which are found attached to vegetation in shallow water (Ref. 41678).歐亞大陸: 廣泛地在北方的流域, 波羅的海黑海 ,里海 (從南部海岸的 Emba ,烏拉河與窩瓦河到河) 與鹹海中的歐洲與中亞傳佈。 (參考文獻 33550) 引進了一些國家。 明確地不存在於西伯利亞。 來自這區域的報告引起了在赤睛魚與 roach 魚之間的從混淆。 (參考文獻 1441) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 124695)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  可能有害的 (Ref. 52336)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 商业性; 诱饵: usually
FAO - 养殖: 产生; 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5010   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00731 - 0.00904), b=3.15 (3.12 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.9   ±0.39 se; based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.09-0.18; tm=3-4; tmax=19).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 36.9 [15.8, 85.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.336 [0.157, 0.666] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.2, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 1.25 [0.53, 2.97] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.8 [5.1, 35.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 39.7 [11.1, 145.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.473 [0.286, 0.855] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.