Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rudd : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium, bait

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Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Rudd
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Scardinius erythrophthalmus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Leuciscidae (Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Scardinius: A range of lofty mountains, Scardus, forming the boundary between Moesia and Macedonia;  erythrophthalmus: Name from Greek words scar=a kind of fish; din=terrible, whirling; erythro=red; phthalm=the eye (Ref. 79012)  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 15; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ).   溫帶; 2°C - 22°C (Ref. 27368); 62°N - 36°N, 10°W - 70°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eurasia: Most European rivers north of Pyrenees and Alps, eastward to Ural and Eya drainages, Aral and White Sea basins; Black Sea basin in Europe and northern Asia Minor. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic basin, Italy, Greece south of Pinios drainage, Great Britain north of 54 N, Ireland and Scandinavia north of 62° N (Ref. 59043). Definitely absent in Siberia. Reports from this area arose from the confusion between the rudd and the roach (Ref. 1441). Introduced to several countries. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
歐亞大陸: 廣泛地在北方,波羅的海,黑海 ,里海 (從南部海岸的 Emba ,烏拉河與窩瓦河到河) 與鹹海的流域的歐洲與中亞傳佈。 (參考文獻 33550) 引進了一些國家。 明確地不存在於西伯利亞。 來自這區域的報告引起了在赤睛魚與 roach 魚之間的從混淆。 (參考文獻 1441) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 8.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.7 cm TL (female); common length : 20.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大體重: g; 最大年齡: 19 年 (Ref. 27368)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 8-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8 - 12; 脊椎骨: 36 - 39. Distinguished from its congeners in Europe by the following combination of characters: 39-42 scales along lateral line; anal fin with 10-13½ branched rays; 9-12 gill rakers; dorsal head profile straight or slightly convex, snout pointing forward, tip at or slightly above level of middle of eye; back not humped behind nape; eye bit close to dorsal head profile when viewed laterally; articulation of lower jaw in front of anterior margin of eye; head and body compressed, head width 13-14% SL; head length 24-28% SL; caudal peduncle depth 1.5-2.0 times in its length, 11-12% SL; and all fins with reddish hue, pelvic fin deep red (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 18-19 rays (Ref. 2196)
尾鰭有 18-19個鰭條 (參考文獻 2196)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs mainly in nutrient-rich, well vegetated lowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes. Feeds mainly on plankton, terrestrial insects and plant material. Breeds on roots or submerged plants. Can adapt to unfavorable environmental condition (Ref. 59043). Colorless or pale yellow eggs are found attached to vegetation in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Consumed fresh (Ref. 30578). Threatened due to the introduction of other species (Ref. 26100).

成魚棲息於湖,河,沼澤地,管與池塘在哪裡有最少的水流。 雜食性,吃無脊椎動物 (包括昆蟲幼生與成魚) 與植物。 雖然成魚活躍地吃,大型植物出現在環境的豐度,他們為雜草的生物學清掃不是一個有效的種。 無色或白黃色的卵被發現在淺水區中依附於植物。 (參考文獻 41678) 生鮮消費.。 (參考文獻 30578) 受威脅的由於其他魚種的引入.(參考文獻 26100)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Males gather at spawning grounds and drive ripe females, often with much splashing, into dense vegetation to spawn (Ref. 59043). Eggs are very sticky (Ref. 59043) and colorless or pale yellow which are found attached to vegetation in shallow water (Ref. 41678).歐亞大陸: 廣泛地在北方,波羅的海,黑海 ,里海 (從南部海岸的 Emba ,烏拉河與窩瓦河到河) 與鹹海的流域的歐洲與中亞傳佈。 (參考文獻 33550) 引進了一些國家。 明確地不存在於西伯利亞。 來自這區域的報告引起了在赤睛魚與 roach 魚之間的從混淆。 (參考文獻 1441) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 124695)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物 (Ref. 52336)





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 商業性; 誘餌: usually
FAO - 養殖: 產生; 漁業: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5010   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00731 - 0.00904), b=3.15 (3.12 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.9   ±0.39 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.09-0.18; tm=3-4; tmax=19).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 36.9 [15.8, 85.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.336 [0.157, 0.666] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.2, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 1.25 [0.53, 2.97] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.8 [5.1, 35.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 39.7 [11.1, 145.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.473 [0.286, 0.855] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.