Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Ayres.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 229 m (Ref. 2850), usually 2 - 50 m (Ref. 9348). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 49°N - 2°S, 126°W - 89°W
Eastern Pacific: San Francisco, USA to Cabo San Lucas and Guayamas, Mexico. Reported from British Columbia (Ref. 11980) and the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 5227).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9348); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9348)
Perch motionless on pectoral fins in a wide range of habitats; commonly found on sandy bottoms or sand patches around rocky reefs and boulder and gravel strewn slopes. Active during the day. May bury in sand with only the eyes and mouth protruding (Ref. 5227). Feed on fishes (Ref. 9348). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35938). Extended larval period (Ref. 35938). Catches are either discarded or made into fish meal (Ref. 9348).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 35938). Also Ref. 240.
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.2 - 25.9, mean 21.6 °C (based on 58 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00273 - 0.00800), b=3.13 (2.98 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 26.4 [9.5, 62.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.712 [0.290, 1.481] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.6 [13.7, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.123 [0.044, 0.292] g/100g ; Selenium = 20.6 [8.6, 48.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 52.4 [11.7, 207.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.607 [0.314, 1.005] mg/100g (wet weight);