Gymnura altavela, Spiny butterfly ray : fisheries, gamefish

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Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus, 1758)

Spiny butterfly ray
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Gymnura altavela   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnura altavela (Spiny butterfly ray)
Gymnura altavela
Picture by Flescher, D.

Classification / Names आम नाम | उपशब्द | Catalog of Fishes(वर्ग, प्रजाति) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

इलाज़मौबरांकी (शारक और रेज़) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Gymnuridae (Butterfly rays)
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range पारिस्थितिकी

; समुद्री; खारा ड़िमरसल; गहराई सीमा 5 - 100 m (Ref. 6808), usually - m (Ref. ).   Subtropical; 0°C - ; 47°N - 39°S, 98°W - 42°E

वितरण देश | ऐफ ऐ ओ क्षेत्र | Ecosystems | संयोग | Point map | भूमिका | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: southern New England, USA, Brazil (Ref. 7251) to Argentina (Ref. 58839). Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Ambriz, Angola (including the Mediterranean, Black Sea, and the Madeira and Canary islands).

आकार / वज़न / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 400 cm WD पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 3709); common length : 200 cm WD पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 3709); अधिकतम प्रकाशित वज़न: 60.0 kg (Ref. 4699)

Short description आकृति विज्ञान | मौरफोमैटरिक्स

Tail short armed with spine. Disk very broad. Very low dorsal and ventral finfolds on tail (Ref. 7251). Disk dark brown to grayish, lower surface of disc and of pelvic fins white, brownish, rosy or rusty cast. Tail white or rosy white below (Ref. 6902).

जीवविज्ञान     शब्द संग्रह (उदाहरणार्थ epibenthic)

Maximum length measured is 140 cm (Ref. 5377). Occurs over sand and mud. Feeds on fishes, crustaceans, mollusks and plankton. Ovoviviparous, gestation lasting about 6 months with 4 to 7 embryos produced per female (Ref. 6676).

Life cycle and mating behavior परिपक्व अवधि | पुनरुत्पत्ति | मछलीऔ का अंडे देना | अंडे | Fecundity | लार्वा

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | संदर्भ | संयोजक : McEachran, John | सहयोगीयो

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3261)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)

  Endangered (EN) (A2d); Date assessed: 21 June 2019

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

मात्स्यिकी: लघु वाणिज्य; आखेट मत्स्य: हां
FAO - मात्स्यिकी: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

अधिक जानकारी

आम नाम
उपशब्द
चपायचय
परभक्षी
ईकोटोकसीकोलौजी
पुनरुत्पत्ति
परिपक्व अवधि
मछलीऔ का अंडे देना
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
अंडे
Egg development
Age/Size
बाढ़
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
मौरफोमैटरिक्स
आकृति विज्ञान
लार्वा
लारवल गतिकी
भर्ती
बहुतायत
BRUVS
संदर्भ
जलीयकृषि
जलीयकृषि रूपरेखा
खींच
आनुवंशिकी
ऐल्लि आवृतियाँ
हैरेटिबिलटी
बीमारी
प्रक्रमण
Nutrients
Mass conversion
सहयोगीयो
तस्वीरे
Stamps, Coins Misc.
ध्वनि
सिगुयटिरा
रफ्तार
तैरने के प्रकार
गिल क्षेत्र
Otoliths
दिमाग
दृष्टि

साधन

Special reports

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इंटरनेट स्रोत

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: वर्ग, प्रजाति | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - मात्स्यिकी: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | राष्ट्रीय आंकड़ासंचय | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, खोज | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.9 - 27.8, mean 23.6 °C (based on 860 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00636 - 0.02272), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
लौटाव (Ref. 120179):  बहुत नीचे, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी समय अवलागत 14 महीने। (Fec 4-7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 21.4 [3.5, 73.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.819 [0.231, 2.455] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.6 [18.6, 24.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.523 [0.163, 1.570] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.7 [7.3, 113.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.55 [1.92, 21.46] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.46 [0.22, 1.02] mg/100g (wet weight);