Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335). More on author: Whitley.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Southwest Pacific: Australia, Norfolk Island and New Zealand (Ref. 8879) incl. Kermadec Is. (Ref. 33839) and questionably Juan Fernández Is. (Ref. 89357).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 180 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33839)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Teeth in jaw roughly 25 in single series, anterior enlarged fang-like and depressible; vomerine teeth small. Mouth large (44% head length) does not fully close, reaching well beyond eyes. Lower jaw slightly prognathous, upper jaw blunt. Eyes small, roughly the same size as branchial opening, and continuous with surrounding skin. Branchial opening slanted posteriorly, below midline. Two branchial pores, three mandibular pores, four suborbital pores, and posterior nasal opening above and in front of eye. Head length roughly 7 times total length; preanal length about equal to tail length, posterior third laterally compressed.
A benthic species (Ref. 75154) which occurs inshore (Ref. 7300).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00048 (0.00026 - 0.00087), b=3.28 (3.13 - 3.43), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 6.6 [3.3, 11.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.124 [0.079, 0.211] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.1 [17.8, 22.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.268 [0.120, 0.693] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.1 [8.0, 35.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 32.2 [7.7, 136.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.417 [0.277, 0.630] mg/100g (wet weight);