Clupea harengus, Atlantic herring : fisheries, gamefish
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Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758

Atlantic herring
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Clupea harengus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Clupea harengus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Clupeiformes (Herrings) 鯡形目 (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) 鯡科 (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Clupeinae
Etymology: Clupea: Latin, clupea = sardine, derived from Clupeus = shield; doubtless a reference to the scales covering the body of the fish + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 364 m (Ref. 58426), usually 0 - 200 m (Ref. 6683).   溫帶; 1°C - 18°C (Ref. 188); 80°N - 33°N, 79°W - 70°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

North Atlantic: in the west, it ranges from southwestern Greenland and Labrador southward to South Carolina, USA. In the east, it ranges from Iceland and southern Greenland southward to the northern Bay of Biscay and eastward to Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya in Russia, including the Baltic Sea (Ref. 188).
北大西洋: 比斯開灣北部向北至冰島與格陵蘭南部,向東至斯匹次卑爾根群島與新地島,包括波羅的海; 格陵蘭西南方與拉布拉多向南至南卡羅萊那州。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 16.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 37032); common length : 30.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 37032); 最大體重: 1.1 kg (Ref. 6114); 最大年齡: 25 年 (Ref. 89560)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 13-21; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 12 - 23; 脊椎骨: 51 - 60. Slender fish with a round belly. Scutes without prominent keel; 12 to 16 post-pelvic scutes (Ref. 188). No median notch in upper jaw; operculum without radiating bony striae; the posterior border of its gill opening is evenly rounded. It is blue to greenish-blue dorsally, becoming silvery ventrally. No distinctive dark spots on the body or fins (Ref. 188).
沒有突出的龍骨脊的鱗甲; 在上頜中的沒有中央的凹槽; 沒有放射狀骨質陷紋的鰓蓋; 鰓裂的後部邊緣均勻地圓的; 沒有在身體或鰭上的特殊的深色斑點; 12 到 16個在腹鰭之後的鱗甲.(參考文獻 188) 銀色的, 藉由藍色或藍綠色的背面。 細長的身體.(參考文獻 7251)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Herring schools move between spawning and wintering grounds in coastal areas and feeding grounds in open water by following migration patterns learned from earlier year classes (Ref. 88171). Juveniles (up to 2 years) shoal close inshore, while adults are found more offshore (Ref. 6683). Adults spend the day in deeper water, but rise to shallower water at night (Ref. 89562). Light is an important factor in controlling their vertical distribution. A facultative zooplanktivorous filter-feeder, i.e., it can switch to filter-feeding if the food density and particle size are appropriate (Ref. 28664). Feed mainly on copepods finding food by visual sense. Herring schools often attract predators such as fish, birds, and marine mammals (Ref. 89563). Schooling, silvery sides, excellent hearing (capable of detecting frequencies between 30-4,000 Hz , Refs. 89391, 89564, 89566), and very fast escape response act as anti-predator devices (Ref. 28664). The most important races in the East Atlantic are the winter-spawning Norwegian and Icelandic herring, the autumn spawning Icelandic and North Sea herring and the Baltic Sea herring. Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked, canned and frozen; can be fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

沿海-大洋性.(參考文獻 58426) 群游於沿岸水域, 與複合食性而且生殖迴游 , 時間點與範圍與在形態學的基礎上是可認識的約略明顯的比賽互有關連。 在第一個年中捕食小的浮游性橈腳類的動物, 其後主要捕食橈足類。 一個官能性嗜食浮游動物的濾食動物,也就是, 如果食物密度與粒子大小很適當,它能轉變成濾食性。 (參考文獻 28664) 度過白天在深水中, 但是上升到水面在晚上。 他們經由視覺發現他們的食物。 進食與成長在冬天期間非常低。 成熟的性在年約 3-9 年.(參考文獻 35388) 至少一個族群在任何的一個月的每年中產卵。 卵在底部上生產。 他們能被分開成一些不同的品系與比賽。 在大西洋東部的最重要的比賽是冬季產卵的挪威與冰島的鯡魚, 產卵冰島與北海鯡魚與波羅的海鯡魚的秋天。 群游性又銀色的側邊,優良的聽證會與很快速的逃亡回應擔任反掠食者裝置。 (參考文獻 28664) 在金氏世界記錄, 如最很多的魚 (參考文獻 6472), 但是在 1990 年廣泛地捕撈過度.(參考文獻 28644) 生鮮使用, 乾燥或鹽醃, 煙燻, 罐裝及冷凍; 能被油炸, 火烤, 微波而且燒烤。 (參考文獻 9988) 光是在控制他們的垂直分布方面重要的因素。 條蟲仔魚與吸蟲時常在消化道發現如寄生蟲。 (參考文獻 37032) 這種的泰晤士河-死水鯡魚 driftnet 漁場已經被檢定藉由海洋的總管職務會議 (http://www.msc.org/) 當管理良好且族群能維持。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

The herring matures between 2-9 years (Refs. 35388, 82767, 89571). Herring populations are known to use traditional spawning grounds, many of which are along shallow coastal areas (15-40 m depth) or on offshore banks down to 200 m (Refs. 6684, 89572). Spawning usually occurs on gravel or rock bottoms, with the exception of Baltic populations which show a preference for shallow (less than 10 m depth) seaweed beds (Refs. 89520, 89572). Each population spawns only once a year over a relatively short time period (Ref. 89573). At least one population is spawning in any one month of the year, each having a different spawning time and place. The herring is a demersal spawner that releases a ribbon of sticky eggs that sink to the sea bed (Ref. 89574) and adhere to the substrate. The eggs released by a spawning population may be several layers thick which may deprive eggs in the bottom layers of oxygen, causing egg mortality (Ref. 89563). Although higher fecundities were reported earlier (e.g. Ref. 74523), fecundity now ranges from 10,000-60,000 eggs (Ref. 89571). Hatching may take up to 3 weeks, depending on temperature (Ref. 89571). Larvae are pelagic and drift with the current. Note: it is impossible to summarize briefly the wide range of spawning strategies of Atlantic herring; the best reviews are those of Svetovidov (Refs. 4608, 4609) for the Eastern Atlantic Ocean and Hildebrand (Ref. 4607) for the Western Atlantic Ocean.北大西洋: 比斯開灣北部向北至冰島與格陵蘭南部,向東至斯匹次卑爾根群島與新地島,包括波羅的海; 格陵蘭西南方與拉布拉多向南至南卡羅萊那州。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 04 February 2009

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.5 - 11.2, mean 6.6 °C (based on 912 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00494 - 0.00641), b=3.09 (3.05 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.4 (3.2 - 3.7) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 106 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (rm=0.1-0.5; K=0.2-0.6; tm=2-5; tmax=25; Fec=17,300-301,000).
Prior r = 0.45, 95% CL = 0.30 - 0.68, Based on 40 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Low.