Classification / Names
Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes(Genere, Specie) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; acqua dolce; salmastro benthopelagico. Temperate; 10°C - 25°C (Ref. 13614); 65°N - 45°N, 12°E - 69°E
Europe and Asia: large rivers draining to Black, Azov, Caspian and Aral Seas. Introduced or native to Northern Dvina drainage (White Sea basin) where it is presently spreading from warmer upper reaches (Vychegda system) northward. Introduced in River Volkhov (a tributary of Lake Ladoga), in Rhine in 1995 and invasive in Vistula drainage, coming from Black Sea basin through Prypet-Bug canal (connecting Dniepr and Vistula drainages).
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 27368); common length : 15.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 556)
Differs from Ballerus ballerus by having small and inferior mouth, 47-54 scales on lateral line, and large eye, about equal to snout length (Ref. 59043).
Occurs in fast flowing rivers. Eastern, brackish populations enter the lower reach of rivers for spawning (Ref. 1441). Inhabit large lowland rivers and estuaries. Active at night. Prey on benthic invertebrates. Semi-anadromous populations forage in large brackish-water habitats in estuaries around Black Sea. Spawn in large aggregations in fast-flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Usually rare and threatened due to water pollution (Ref. 59043).
Spawn in large aggregations in fast flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Semi-anadromous individuals begin spawning migration in November in Kura (Ref. 59043). Sticky eggs attach themselves to stones or plants (Ref. 9953).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Pesca: pesca di sussistenza
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneNutrientsMass conversion
CollaboratoriImmaginiStamps, Coins Misc.SuoniCiguateraVelocitàModalità di nuotoArea branchialeOtolithsCervelliVista
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00569 - 0.01680), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 12.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (tm=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .