Tetrapturus pfluegeri, Longbill spearfish : fisheries, gamefish

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Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins & de Sylva 1963

Longbill spearfish
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Tetrapturus pfluegeri
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Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Carangiformes () > Istiophoridae (Billfishes)
Etymology: Tetrapturus: Greek, tetra = four + Greek, pteron, fin, wing (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Robins & deSylva.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser; ozeanodrom (Ref. 51243); tiefenbereich 0 - 200 m (Ref. 43), usually 100 - ? m (Ref. 4770).   Subtropical; 44°N - 33°S, 98°W - 17°E (Ref. 43)

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Atlantic Ocean: widely distributed in offshore waters, much more densely so in the western than in the eastern Atlantic. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).

Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 254 cm FL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 40637); common length : 165 cm OT Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 43); max. veröff. Gewicht: 58.0 kg (Ref. 40637)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Rückenflossenstacheln (insgesamt): 0; Rückenflossenweichstrahlen (insgesamt): 50-57; Afterflossenstacheln 0; Afterflossenweichstrahlen: 18 - 21; Wirbelzahl: 24. Blue-black above, silvery white splattered with brown on the sides, silvery white below; dorsal fins dark blue; pectorals blackish brown, occasionally with tinges of greyish white; pelvic fins blue-black with a black fin membrane; 1st anal fin dark blue with silvery white at base; 2nd anal fin blackish brown.

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Oceanic species, chiefly found in offshore waters, usually above the thermocline. Feed mainly on pelagic fishes and squids (Ref. 4770). Females probably spawn once a year (Ref. 4770). Marketed frozen.

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Maturation seems to occur at the same time rather than in the same season both in the northern and southern hemisphere, which could be suggestive of homogeneity of the population of this species. Females probably spawn once a year (Ref. 4770).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator | Partner

Nakamura, I., 1985. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 5. Billfishes of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of marlins, sailfishes, spearfishes and swordfishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(5):65p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 43)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 123251)

  nicht bedroht (LC) ; Date assessed: 15 September 2010

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: weniger kommerziell; Sportfisch: ja
FAO(Fischereien: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Mehr Information

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Internet Quellen

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | FishWatcher Einträge suchen | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank(Genom, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationale Datenbanken | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Gehe zu, Suchen) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.1 - 23.7, mean 18.2 °C (based on 140 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5630   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00196 - 0.01020), b=3.13 (2.93 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  mittel, Verdopplung der Population dauert 1,4 - 4,4 Jahre. (Assuming tm=2-4).
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   Low.