Dipturus batis, Blue skate : fisheries, gamefish

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Dipturus batis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Blue skate
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Dipturus batis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Dipturus batis (Blue skate)
Dipturus batis
Male picture by Cambraia Duarte, P.M.N. (c)ImagDOP

Classification / Names Κοινά ονόματα | Συνώνυμα | Catalog of Fishes(Γένος, Είδη) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ελασμοβράγχιοι (καρχαρίες και σαλάχια) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Issue
Junior synonym Raia intermedia Parnell, 1837 (= Dipturus intermedius) is considered valid in CofF ver. January 2018 following Last et al., 2016 (Ref. 114953). Its synonymy under the current species will be removed.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Οικολογία

; Θαλασσινό(ά) βενθικό(ς); εύρος βάθους 100 - 1000 m (Ref. 4426), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 4426).   Subtropical; 69°N - 12°N, 30°W - 42°E

Κατανομή Χώρες | Περιοχές FAO | Οικοσυστήματα | Παρουσίες | Point map | Εισαγωγές | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway, Iceland, the Faroes to Senegal, including western Mediterranean and western part of the Baltic. Extirpated by trawling from much of its former range (Ref. 27438).

Length at first maturity / Μέγεθος / Βάρος / Age

Maturity: Lm 160.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 285 cm TL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 35388); common length : 100.0 cm TL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 3261); μεγ. δημοσιευμένο βάρος: 97.1 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Μορφολογία | Μορφομετρία

Ραχιαίες άκανθες (συνολικά): 0; Εδρικές άκανθες 0; Μαλακές εδρικές ακτίνες: 0. Snout very long and pointed; length before eyes 2,5-4,0 times distance between them; disc broadly rhombic with acute outer corners; upper surface and underside smooth in young, partly prickly in larger specimens; no thorns on disc, a row of 12-18 thorns along tail; 40-56 tooth rows; upper surface olive-grey or brown with a variable pattern of light spots, underside ashy-grey to blue-grey (Ref. 3167).

Βιολογία     Γλωσσάρι (π.χ. epibenthic)

Benthic species in shelf and slope waters with a wide tolerance for depth and temperature (Ref. 4426). Found in coastal waters mainly within the 200 m range (Ref. 3167). Feeds on all kinds of bottom animals, including other skates (Ref. 114953), large individuals prefer fish (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Males reaches maturity at ca. 115 cm TL, females at 123 cm TL; birth size at ca. 21 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Mate in spring and the egg capsules are laid during the summer. Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 10.6-24.5 cm long and 5.0-14.5 cm wide (Ref. 41250). About 40 eggs per individual are laid annually (Ref. 41250). Flesh is marketed fresh or smoked (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Γεννητική Ωρίμανση | Αναπαραγωγή | Γεννοβολία | Αβγά | Γονιμότητα | Προνύμφες

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Egg-cases laid in spring and summer, very large (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | Αναφορές | Συντονιστής : McEachran, John | Συνεργάτες

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Critically Endangered (CR) (A2bcd+4bcd); Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

αλιεία: περιορισμένης εμπορικότητας; αλιεία αναψυχής: ναί
FAO - αλιεία: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Η θάλασσα γύρω μας

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 15, mean 9.8 °C (based on 243 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00339 (0.00193 - 0.00596), b=3.18 (3.03 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Τροφικό Επίπεδο (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 19.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Ελαστικότητα (Ref. 120179):  Πολύ χαμηλό, ελάχιστος χρόνος για διπλασιασμό πληθυσμού > 14 έτη (K=0.06; tm=11; tmax=51).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 11.4 [1.2, 70.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.747 [0.141, 2.948] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.3 [14.2, 18.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.35 [0.15, 0.83] g/100g ; Selenium = 32 [9, 131] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.2 [1.5, 36.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.393 [0.099, 1.446] mg/100g (wet weight);